[tor-dev] [prop269] Further changes to the hybrid handshake proposal (and NTor)

isis agora lovecruft isis at torproject.org
Fri Oct 14 21:45:06 UTC 2016


After discussion with John Schanck and Trevor Perrin over the last month,
we've decided to make some alterations to the specification for hybrid
handshakes in Tor proposal #269.

It seems that John, Trevor, and I are mostly in agreement about most
of the construction.

First, I'll try to summarise a list of changes and the reasoning/concerns
which provoked them.  For what it's worth, these concerns mostly involve
highly theoretical problems surrounding whether we model a hash function with
a random oracle or try to make some stronger claims to its properties, and
aren't due to any real world attacks (assuming that hash functions do what
you'd expect them to do and aren't something crazy like a NULL op or a
pineapple slicing machine).


 1. [NTOR] Inputs to HKDF-extract(SALT, SECRET) which are not secret
    (e.g. server identity ID, and public keys A, X, Y) are now removed from
    SECRET and instead placed in the SALT.

    Reasoning: *Only* secret data should be placed into the HKDF extractor,
    and public data should not be mixed into whatever entropic material is
    used for key generation.  This eliminates a theoretical attack in which
    the server chooses its public material in such a way as to bias the
    entropy extraction.  This isn't reasonably assumed to be possible in a
    "hash functions aren't probablistically pineapple slicers" world.

    Previously, and also in NTor, we were adding the transcript of the
    handshake(s) and other public material (e.g. ID, A, X, Y, PROTOID)
    directly into the secret portion of an HMAC call, the output of which is
    eventually used to derive the key material.  The SALT for HKDF (as
    specified in RFC5869) can be anything, even a static string, but if we're
    going to be adding transcript material into the handshake, it shouldn't be
    in the entropy extraction phrase.

 2. [NTOR] The authentication of transcript data, i.e. (ID, A, X, Y, EPK, C)
    where EPK is the public and ephemeral portion which the client sends in
    the post-quantum KEM, and C is the reconciliation data, is now distinctly
    separate from the production of SALT for the extractor, and is first
    HMACed separately (where the key is derived from the same HKDF extraction
    which produces the seed) before being included within the expansion phase.

    Reasoning: The idea is to avoid attempting to do context-binding (of the
    transcript, in this case) and entropy extraction at the same time, in
    order to have a stronger argument that the shared key used for
    authenticating the context is secure, whereas (before, in NTor) things
    were a bit murky.
    The use of auth_input in ntor was designed to prevent a certain type of
    collision attack (see [Zav12, SZW16]). However the auth_input
    countermeasure is unnecessary if the authentication tag is of length
    2*LAMBDA. A collision attack on a random function of output length
    2*LAMBDA has cost 2^LAMBDA.  This change additionally avoids the collision

 3. The hashing of first SALT has been removed.

    (Or, alternatively, it's still there, assuming you're following the
    specification for HKDF extraction in RFC5869 to the T and hashing any
    incoming SALT longer than 32 bytes.  If you're using something like
    SHAKE-256 or similar… well, it's not exactly clear or specified yet how to
    use SHAKE as a dropin replacement for a KDF.  Joan is apparently writing

    Reasoning: It was originally included due to concerns that a malicious
    adverary could potentially choose some SALT such that when passed into the
    HKDF-extractor, it would "nullify" the SECRET input rather than extracting
    from it.  However, the HKDF-extractor is HMAC(SALT, SECRET) and we assume
    the HMAC's underlying hash function is not a machine which factors
    discrete logarithms or a slices pineapples.  Were you to replace your own
    hash function with a pineapple slicer, you'd simply be creating a
    vulnerability for yourself, and thus it doesn't really make sense in Tor's
    case to hash the SALT first because we're not living in the horrible world
    where hash functions can turn out to be pineapple slicers.  (And even if
    it were possible for them to be pineapple slicers, it personally still
    doesn't make sense to me why you'd want to protect against potential
    pineapple slicers by putting your data through a pineapple slicer twice.)

Best regards,
 ♥Ⓐ isis agora lovecruft
OpenPGP: 4096R/0A6A58A14B5946ABDE18E207A3ADB67A2CDB8B35
Current Keys: https://fyb.patternsinthevoid.net/isis.txt
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