[tor-dev] Proposal: End-to-end encrypted onion services for non-Tor clients
s7r at sky-ip.org
Thu Sep 17 18:57:18 UTC 2015
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I like the idea of having a secure way for the non Tor users to browse
hidden service content. Given the design presented, someone who wants
to do it will need to rely on third parties: domain name registers,
DNS providers, hosting providers, commercial CA SSL providers, etc.
All these are 'centralized systems', they can be tied to a real world
identity / company / address, follow the traces of the payments made
for these services as well as, most important, hijack the services,
issue subpoenas to the providers, gag orders, censor the services,
take over the services, monitor them, you name it. These are exactly
for what we have Tor hidden services, to avoid all these threats and
redefine "trust" in a better, user-oriented way.
While I do like the idea of this proposal and consider it important to
make the content available in onionland to non Tor users, I think we
should have this as a third party maintained separate software,
properly documented and with the risks clearly highlighted. I don't
like the idea of implementing the entry proxy as part of the Tor relay
By reading your proposal I can understand that Tor doesn't need to be
modified in any way to support it. Separate third party documentation
and maybe a lightweight entry proxy software would do just fine and
simplify things very much. The proposal is applicable with Tor right
now, we don't need to modify it, if an operator can get clearnet
domain + commercial CA signed SSL cert + DNS hosting + server hosting
(for the entry proxy). It's no easy task, and the requirement list is
not short, plus you have to do all these for each and every hidden
service you have, as opposite to configuring a tor2web server which
would work in proxying content from any hidden service.
On 9/14/2015 7:12 PM, Donncha O'Cearbhaill wrote:
> Hello all,
> I have been thinking about ideas to make Tor hidden services more
> available and secure for non-Tor users. Inline I've included a
> draft proposal which describes an end-to-end encrypted Tor2Web-like
> I'm really interested in hearing any suggestions, comments or
> criticism about this proposal. In particular I'd like to know if
> the trust requirements for the entry proxies and resolvers seem
> reasonable? Does this proposal make sense and is it something worth
> Thank you to David Stainton and Leif Ryge for your feedback on this
> Kind Regards, Donncha
> Filename: xxx-encrypted-onion-services-for-non-tor-clients.txt
> Title: End-to-end encrypted onion services for non-Tor clients
> Author: Donncha Ó Cearbhaill Created: 22-Aug-2015 Status: Draft
> 1. Overview:
> This proposal describes a system to allow non-Tor users to securely
> access location-hidden services via a domain name chosen by the
> hidden service operator.
> 2. Motivation:
> Tor hidden services have typically been used to provide anonymity
> to both services and clients. There are however use cases where a
> publisher or content provider requires anonymity but their users do
> not. The publishers typically would like their content to be
> available securely and to the widest possible audience.
> Tor2Web currently allows non-Tor users to access hidden services
> but it has a number of limitations. Tor2Web deployments are limited
> due to requirement to entrust Tor2Web service providers with users
> location information and the content of their requests.
> The onion subdomain based addressing in Tor2Web poses a usability
> issue and can be unwieldy for users without providing any
> self-authenticating properties. Tor2Web can be configured with a
> custom domain for an individual hidden service but this requires
> manual configuration and additional infrastructure.
> Ideally non-Tor users should be able to access location-hidden
> services under a standard domain name with end-to-end encryption
> from the client's browser to the hidden service web server. The
> system should be decentralized and it should not require the hidden
> service operator to run any clearnet systems.
> 3. Proposal:
> At a high level this proposal specifies a system of TCP entry
> proxies which transparently proxy the TLS connections of non-Tor
> clients to a hidden service. A client who requests a domain name
> such as https://myblog.com should get connected to a hidden service
> endpoint which has a valid SSL certificate for myblog.com.
> 3.1. Hidden Service configuration
> A hidden service operator obtains a public domain name and a
> corresponding CA signed SSL certificate. The operator configures
> the hidden service web server with the SSL certificate for the
> external domain.
> The domain name is pointed at an authoritative nameserver provider.
> The operator should also set a TXT DNS record containing the onion
> address of their hidden service.
> 3.2. Entry Proxy
> Modern web browsers send a Server Name Indication (SNI) field in
> the initial ClientHello of the TLS handshake. The entry proxy reads
> this field to determine the clients destination domain. The proxy
> performs a DNS lookup at that domain for a TXT record which
> specifies the corresponding onion address for the provided domain.
> The TLS entry proxy connects to the onion service via a
> Tor2Web-type circuit and then begins transparently proxying TLS
> traffic between the clients browser and the destination onion
> 3.3. Resolving Nameserver
> The key component of this system is a DNS name server which can
> direct clients to an online entry proxy via a round-robin type
> system. In a basic solution the onion service operator could
> manually specify one or more entry proxies in the A records for
> their domain on their existing authoritative DNS provider.
> In practice entry proxy churn would result in changing set of entry
> proxies. The nameserver will need regularly update its set of
> online entry proxies an remove proxies which are malfunctioning,
> malicious or otherwise unusable.
> The resolver may run a scanner to check its known proxies or load a
> list from an external service. Additionally the resolver should
> detect if an entry proxy blacklists a domain for which it is
> responsible and avoid routing clients to that entry proxy.
> It is expected that independent service providers will run their
> own domain->onion resolving nameserver in diverse jurisdictions as
> free or paid services.
> 4. Implementation:
> The entry proxy component could be implemented as part of the
> current Tor relay code base. Integration directly within Tor would
> allow use of the existing network consensus and bandwidth
> measurement systems to be used to discover available entry proxies.
> It would also allow for malicious entry proxies to be blacklisted.
> Alternatively the entry proxy could be implemented in the existing
> Tor2Web software or as a standalone software package. Implementing
> outside of Tor would be faster and it would avoid the risk of
> losing Tor relay capacity as a result of legal threats to the entry
> The resolving nameserver is the most complicated component of this
> system. The component will eventually require a DNS server, a
> management interface, and a set of network monitoring tools.
> 5. Security and resiliency implications:
> 5.1. Availability Attacks:
> Adversaries can attack the availability of a publicly-proxied
> hidden service at a number of levels:
> * Censorship or shutdown of entry proxy:
> Attacks on individual entry proxies are mitigated by performing
> DNS based round-robin between many online entry proxies. The
> Resolver system should be able to quickly remove entry proxies
> which misbehave or which go offline.
> * Censorship or seizure of the hidden service public domain:
> DNS based blocks are widely deployed for censorship and may be
> difficult to avoid. Domain registrars can also be forced to suspend
> domain names. Service operators should considering running their
> service under a TLD which is less vulnerable to these type of
> coercive threats.
> * Takedown of a nameserver provider:
> Multiple resolving nameservers can be configure for each forwarded
> domain. Using nameservers maintained by different providers can
> provide resilience to attacks against a single nameserver
> 5.2. Security Attacks:
> Entry proxies and exit relays have a similar ability to monitor
> and interfere with client traffic. This is greater risk of
> targeted interference from entry proxies as they can also determine
> the client's network location.
> * Man-in-the-middle HTTP connections:
> Entry proxies have the ability to man-in-the-middle HTTP
> connections. Service operators should send HSTS header to force
> clients to automatically use TLS for all future connections.
> * TLS man-in-the-middle with CA-signed certificate
> Some commercial CA cert providers allow for domain ownership to be
> validated by providing a file over HTTP at the domain. A malicious
> entry proxy could successfully obtain a CA-signed certificate from
> one of these certificate authorities.
> Service operators can minimize their exposure to this type of
> attack by using HPKP headers to limit the set of valid certificate
> authorities for their domain.
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