[tor-dev] Exit Enclaving and the future of?
jacob at appelbaum.net
Mon Aug 29 10:53:27 UTC 2011
I'll try to sum up Exit Enclaving in no certain terms and hope that Nick
or someone else will chime in to correct my assumptions. This should
probably be formalized and put into the path-spec at some point. I was
surprised to not see it in there to begin with but I probably just
missed it. Anyway, without further delay...
When Tor builds a circuit it does so with certain constraints in mind -
most of these are described in the path-spec. Exit Enclaving is a set of
client circuit building constraints that all go together. When a user
wishes to connect to a given IP address, Tor will check this IP against
all of the Tor nodes in the Tor consensus. If the IP address in question
is a Tor node in the consensus, the Tor client will check the selected
Tor node's exit policy. If the Tor node's exit policy allows connections
to *itself* - that is the IP address of Tor node - we check that the
requested port is allowed by that policy. If we find that this set of
constraints is matched, we build a *four* hop circuit to the Tor node
that has the same IP as our request. The Tor node that matches is the
fourth hop and we force exiting to the service offered by that node. The
user then exits from the Tor node that met the constraints and they're
connected to the service offered by that Tor node. As a result, client
security is greatly improved by using Tor as the full path to the
services offered on that Tor node.
Obviously, with a bit of firewall trickery, it would be possible to
offer the services on another physical host but the general point still
stands - the service on a given IP address may only be enclaved by an IP
address that is a confirmed Tor relay.
I think Exit Enclaving is confusing for the uninitiated. It is
documented but not in the standard Tor ways and it appears to be one of
the lesser understood things in Tor land. Here's the official
documentation as far as I've found it :
Here's the important bits from that page:
SocksPort 9050 # what port to open for local application connections
SocksListenAddress 127.0.0.1 # accept connections only from localhost
ExitPolicy accept 126.96.36.199:443
ExitPolicy reject *:*
There are a few references to the term (Exit) Enclave in the torspec.git
repo but none of them actually define how it works with absolute
authority. At best we've described how to try to become one without
actually explaining the essence concretely in a specification. I think
we should add a paragraph to the man page as well as the torspec. I'd be
happy to write it once we actually hammer out the current and pas client
There is a problem with the current Exit Enclaving approach and if
anything, it's not the worst one to have. If the user attempts to
connect with a name, we are unable to try to satisfy the constraints
that require an IP address; so we just skip Enclaving entirely for that
connection. After the first sucessful connection or the first time Tor
resolves the name, we're able to take the above steps in our attempt to
opportunistically enclave. Before that - the Tor client only knows the
name and thus the IP address is a mystery. Generally this results in the
first connection exiting via any other node that allows exiting to the
target host. I think this is perhaps an anonymity concern as it shows
that the Tor client has likely not connected to the host in question -
an evil Exit might take note of this and watch for correlated streams
over time, etc.
Here's an example of a semi-popular website documenting their enclaving
Recently the CCC jabber server became an exit enclave and a hidden
service, similar to the DuckDuckGo setup:
As I stated previously, I think that the use of Exit Enclaves greatly
improves client security. It reduces the chances of a network sniffer
getting lucky, it helps to mitigate the severity of services getting
crypto stuff wrong, etc.
I think it would be nice to make this easier to set-up and configure for
server administrators. I'd also like to make this more flexible for Tor
clients and if possible, find some methods for making Tor clients
automatically enclave on the first connection.
There are a few ways that we might see Exit Enclaving happen on the
first connection. It is possible to make the first connection enclave if
the client is using the TorDNSPort; Tor will have resolved and cached
the names used by all clients, connections by names should then Enclave
and connections by IP will Enclave as well. Alternatively, having all
connections to Tor happen by IP address only would force all clients to
Enclave on first connection. I think this is probably dangerous in all
cases except a Transparent Tor network. Another possible hack is to set
MapAddress for the hosts that matter to you - this doesn't scale very
well and it's confusing for most people; it isn't dynamic and it seems
that it will likely desynchronise over time.
I'd like to advocate for a simple set of options to make this stuff
easier to use and more likely to be used by a server admin.
Here's a bug where I suggest an option OfferExitEnclave that is either a
bool or a port list:
My thought was that a service provider who wants to offer enhanced
service to Tor users could set a single flag and it would create a Tor
Exit node that only exits to itself; I imagine that it might make sense
to change the advertised bandwidth. It might even be a good idea to set
a reasonable bandwidth cap of sorts but I think this is probably not
great until we can automatically guess intelligently. I imagine that
flipping the hypothetical OfferExitEnclave switch would actually be
short hand for the following:
ExitPolicy accept ORListenConfirmedPublicAddress:*
ExitPolicy reject *:*
Thus when we want to help someone enclave their entire host - we tell
them to flip a single flag like so:
If they want to enclave a specific service on their host - we tell them
to flip the same flag like so:
I'm not sold on that set of options but I think offering at least the
OfferExitEnclave option as a bool would result in a lot more clarity for
a server admin who wants to enhance their services for use with Tor.
I think that generally, the nice part about Exit Enclaving is that it
works as well as the rest of Tor - it does not really rely on external
dependencies at all - no need for DNS or DNSSEC stuff, no need for the
authorities to do any extra work on a per node basis, the client can use
a different exit if they like, etc.
On the client side, I think that would could make some improvements that
aren't merely cosmetic but when enabled would improve client security.
As I've already stated, Transparent Tor networks with TorDNSPort do this
automatically by the nature of how they function. Other than the
Torouter and probably TAILS, I'm not sure of other projects that takes
advantage of this option. I'm not even certain that it will work in the
long term for Torouter because of SRV records and jabber clients.
Generally the client situation as it stands today lacks a general switch
to force attempts at Exit Enclaving by name. Such an option would force
a full round trip. Certainly we lack a general manner that attempts to
Exit Enclave for all hosts and I'd like to see that change.
I think it would be nice to have a few options and I'm far from sold on
any of them. I'll lay them out as if they were already implemented.
This option could learn what possible names are frequently used and
opportunistically resolve them, perhaps even caching some meta-data
about exit enclaves that we've used, if it was stable, etc - this is
could be something like a mash up TrackHostExits, LongLivedPorts,
MapAddress, and something that learns overtime the hosts you use regularly.
I think it would need some work to be done in a privacy preserving
manner, probably with something like scrypt, if it needed to be cached
on disk. This would solve the problem of a host being a known Exit
Enclave after the first resovle and then later expiring from Tor's
internal DNS cache. I think this is a common problem for IM connections
and simply marking that name as something worth the round trip would be
a huge gain, even if only for a single Tor run where the results are
never cached on disk. My Tor often runs for days at a time and I think
that the DNS cache internally expires before my Tor client exits. I'm
pretty sure that means that it's up to my IM client or other software to
cache the IP or we're back to square zero.
This option could simply force the full round trip for all connections.
Simple enough but likely a major performance hit. The default would be
zero and keep things as they are today.
AttemptExitEnclavingPorts [port list]
This option could attempt Enclaving for any connections to any host if
the connection is to one of the listed ports.
AlwaysAttemptEnclaveNames [list of names]
This option could take a list of names where we want to force a full
round trip and that we'd like to enclave. Perhaps it would even fail to
work if the Enclaving would fail and perhaps it could fail in a helpful
manner. I imagine that some people might like this for customised
browser bundles or if they're a power user who knows what they want, etc.
I know that Nick had some suggestions - perhaps adding known Exit
Enclaving names into the consensus or into descriptors or something that
the directory authorities handle. I'm not sure that I fully understand
his suggestions and I look forward to his reply to this email. :)
All the best,
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