[tor-announce] New stable release:

Nick Mathewson nickm at freehaven.net
Mon Dec 9 20:46:58 UTC 2019

Hello, everyone!

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After months of work, Tor is now available! This is the first
stable release in the 0.4.2.x series, and we hope you find it useful.

You can download the source code from the usual place on the website.
Packages should be available within the next several weeks, with a new
Tor Browser around January 7.

Changes in version - 2019-12-09
  This is the first stable release in the 0.4.2.x series. This series
  improves reliability and stability, and includes several stability and
  correctness improvements for onion services. It also fixes many smaller
  bugs present in previous series.

  Per our support policy, we will support the 0.4.2.x series for nine
  months, or until three months after the release of a stable 0.4.3.x:
  whichever is longer. If you need longer-term support, please stick
  with 0.3.5.x, which will we plan to support until Feb 2022.

  Below are the changes since For a complete list of only
  the changes since, see the ChangeLog file.

  o Major features (directory authorities):
    - Directory authorities now reject relays running all currently
      deprecated release series. The currently supported release series
      are: 0.2.9, 0.3.5, 0.4.0, 0.4.1, and 0.4.2. Closes ticket 31549.

  o Major features (onion service v3, denial of service):
    - Add onion service introduction denial of service defenses. Intro
      points can now rate-limit client introduction requests, using
      parameters that can be sent by the service within the
      ESTABLISH_INTRO cell. If the cell extension for this is not used,
      the intro point will honor the consensus parameters. Closes
      ticket 30924.

  o Major bugfixes (circuit build, guard):
    - When considering upgrading circuits from "waiting for guard" to
      "open", always ignore circuits that are marked for close.
      Previously we could end up in the situation where a subsystem is
      notified of a circuit opening, but the circuit is still marked for
      close, leading to undesirable behavior. Fixes bug 30871; bugfix

  o Major bugfixes (crash, Linux, Android):
    - Tolerate systems (including some Android installations) where
      madvise and MADV_DONTDUMP are available at build-time, but not at
      run time. Previously, these systems would notice a failed syscall
      and abort. Fixes bug 31570; bugfix on
    - Tolerate systems (including some Linux installations) where
      madvise and/or MADV_DONTFORK are available at build-time, but not
      at run time. Previously, these systems would notice a failed
      syscall and abort. Fixes bug 31696; bugfix on

  o Major bugfixes (embedded Tor):
    - Avoid a possible crash when restarting Tor in embedded mode and
      enabling a different set of publish/subscribe messages. Fixes bug
      31898; bugfix on

  o Major bugfixes (relay):
    - Relays now respect their AccountingMax bandwidth again. When
      relays entered "soft" hibernation (which typically starts when
      we've hit 90% of our AccountingMax), we had stopped checking
      whether we should enter hard hibernation. Soft hibernation refuses
      new connections and new circuits, but the existing circuits can
      continue, meaning that relays could have exceeded their configured
      AccountingMax. Fixes bug 32108; bugfix on

  o Major bugfixes (torrc parsing):
    - Stop ignoring torrc options after an %include directive, when the
      included directory ends with a file that does not contain any
      config options (but does contain comments or whitespace). Fixes
      bug 31408; bugfix on

  o Major bugfixes (v3 onion services):
    - Onion services now always use the exact number of intro points
      configured with the HiddenServiceNumIntroductionPoints option (or
      fewer if nodes are excluded). Before, a service could sometimes
      pick more intro points than configured. Fixes bug 31548; bugfix

  o Minor feature (onion services, control port):
    - The ADD_ONION command's keyword "BEST" now defaults to ED25519-V3
      (v3) onion services. Previously it defaulted to RSA1024 (v2).
      Closes ticket 29669.

  o Minor features (auto-formatting scripts):
    - When annotating C macros, never generate a line that our check-
      spaces script would reject. Closes ticket 31759.
    - When annotating C macros, try to remove cases of double-negation.
      Closes ticket 31779.

  o Minor features (best practices tracker):
    - Our best-practices tracker now integrates with our include-checker
      tool to keep track of how many layering violations we have not yet
      fixed. We hope to reduce this number over time to improve Tor's
      modularity. Closes ticket 31176.
    - Add a TOR_PRACTRACKER_OPTIONS variable for passing arguments to
      practracker from the environment. We may want this for continuous
      integration. Closes ticket 31309.
    - Give a warning rather than an error when a practracker exception
      is violated by a small amount, add a --list-overbroad option to
      practracker that lists exceptions that are stricter than they need
      to be, and provide an environment variable for disabling
      practracker. Closes ticket 30752.
    - Our best-practices tracker now looks at headers as well as C
      files. Closes ticket 31175.

  o Minor features (build system):
    - Make pkg-config use --prefix when cross-compiling, if
      PKG_CONFIG_PATH is not set. Closes ticket 32191.
    - Add --disable-manpage and --disable-html-manual options to
      configure script. This will enable shortening build times by not
      building documentation. Resolves issue 19381.

  o Minor features (compilation):
    - Log a more useful error message when we are compiling and one of
      the compile-time hardening options we have selected can be linked
      but not executed. Closes ticket 27530.

  o Minor features (configuration):
    - The configuration code has been extended to allow splitting
      configuration data across multiple objects. Previously, all
      configuration data needed to be kept in a single object, which
      tended to become bloated. Closes ticket 31240.

  o Minor features (continuous integration):
    - When building on Appveyor and Travis, pass the "-k" flag to make,
      so that we are informed of all compilation failures, not just the
      first one or two. Closes ticket 31372.
    - When running CI builds on Travis, put some random data in
      ~/.torrc, to make sure no tests are reading the Tor configuration
      file from its default location. Resolves issue 30102.

  o Minor features (debugging):
    - Log a nonfatal assertion failure if we encounter a configuration
      line whose command is "CLEAR" but which has a nonempty value. This
      should be impossible, according to the rules of our configuration
      line parsing. Closes ticket 31529.

  o Minor features (geoip):
    - Update geoip and geoip6 to the December 3 2019 Maxmind GeoLite2
      Country database. Closes ticket 32685.

  o Minor features (git hooks):
    - Our pre-commit git hook now checks for a special file before
      running practracker, so that practracker only runs on branches
      that are based on master. Since the pre-push hook calls the pre-
      commit hook, practracker will also only run before pushes of
      branches based on master. Closes ticket 30979.

  o Minor features (git scripts):
    - Add a "--" command-line argument, to separate git-push-all.sh
      script arguments from arguments that are passed through to git
      push. Closes ticket 31314.
    - Add a -r <remote-name> argument to git-push-all.sh, so the script
      can push test branches to a personal remote. Closes ticket 31314.
    - Add a -t <test-branch-prefix> argument to git-merge-forward.sh and
      git-push-all.sh, which makes these scripts create, merge forward,
      and push test branches. Closes ticket 31314.
    - Add a -u argument to git-merge-forward.sh, so that the script can
      re-use existing test branches after a merge failure and fix.
      Closes ticket 31314.
    - Add a TOR_GIT_PUSH env var, which sets the default git push
      command and arguments for git-push-all.sh. Closes ticket 31314.
    - Add a TOR_PUSH_DELAY variable to git-push-all.sh, which makes the
      script push master and maint branches with a delay between each
      branch. These delays trigger the CI jobs in a set order, which
      should show the most likely failures first. Also make pushes
      atomic by default, and make the script pass any command-line
      arguments to git push. Closes ticket 29879.
    - Call the shellcheck script from the pre-commit hook. Closes
      ticket 30967.
    - Skip pushing test branches that are the same as a remote
      maint/release/master branch in git-push-all.sh by default. Add a
      -s argument, so git-push-all.sh can push all test branches. Closes
      ticket 31314.

  o Minor features (IPv6, logging):
    - Log IPv6 addresses as well as IPv4 addresses when describing
      routerinfos, routerstatuses, and nodes. Closes ticket 21003.

  o Minor features (maintenance scripts):
    - Add a Coccinelle script to detect bugs caused by incrementing or
      decrementing a variable inside a call to log_debug(). Since
      log_debug() is a macro whose arguments are conditionally
      evaluated, it is usually an error to do this. One such bug was
      30628, in which SENDME cells were miscounted by a decrement
      operator inside a log_debug() call. Closes ticket 30743.

  o Minor features (onion service v3):
    - Do not allow single hop clients to fetch or post an HS descriptor
      from an HSDir. Closes ticket 24964.

  o Minor features (onion service):
    - Disallow single-hop clients at the introduction point. We've
      removed Tor2web support a while back and single-hop rendezvous
      attempts are blocked at the relays. This change should remove load
      off the network from spammy clients. Close ticket 24963.

  o Minor features (onion services v3):
    - Assist users who try to setup v2 client authorization in v3 onion
      services by pointing them to the right documentation. Closes
      ticket 28966.

  o Minor features (stem tests):
    - Change "make test-stem" so it only runs the stem tests that use
      tor. This change makes test-stem faster and more reliable. Closes
      ticket 31554.

  o Minor features (testing):
    - When running tests that attempt to look up hostnames, replace the
      libc name lookup functions with ones that do not actually touch
      the network. This way, the tests complete more quickly in the
      presence of a slow or missing DNS resolver. Closes ticket 31841.
    - Add a script to invoke "tor --dump-config" and "tor
      --verify-config" with various configuration options, and see
      whether tor's resulting configuration or error messages are what
      we expect. Use it for integration testing of our +Option and
      /Option flags. Closes ticket 31637.
    - Improve test coverage for our existing configuration parsing and
      management API. Closes ticket 30893.
    - Add integration tests to make sure that practracker gives the
      outputs we expect. Closes ticket 31477.
    - The practracker self-tests are now run as part of the Tor test
      suite. Closes ticket 31304.

  o Minor features (testing, continuous integration):
    - Disable all but one Travis CI macOS build, to mitigate slow
      scheduling of Travis macOS jobs. Closes ticket 32177.
    - Run the chutney IPv6 networks as part of Travis CI. Closes
      ticket 30860.
    - Simplify the Travis CI build matrix, and optimise for build time.
      Closes ticket 31859.
    - Use Windows Server 2019 instead of Windows Server 2016 in our
      Appveyor builds. Closes ticket 32086.

  o Minor features (token bucket):
    - Implement a generic token bucket that uses a single counter, for
      use in anti-DoS onion service work. Closes ticket 30687.

  o Minor bugfixes (Appveyor continuous integration):
    - Avoid spurious errors when Appveyor CI fails before the install
      step. Fixes bug 31884; bugfix on

  o Minor bugfixes (best practices tracker):
    - Fix a few issues in the best-practices script, including tests,
      tab tolerance, error reporting, and directory-exclusion logic.
      Fixes bug 29746; bugfix on
    - When running check-best-practices, only consider files in the src
      subdirectory. Previously we had recursively considered all
      subdirectories, which made us get confused by the temporary
      directories made by "make distcheck". Fixes bug 31578; bugfix

  o Minor bugfixes (build system):
    - Interpret "--disable-module-dirauth=no" correctly. Fixes bug
      32124; bugfix on
    - Interpret "--with-tcmalloc=no" correctly. Fixes bug 32124; bugfix
    - Stop failing when jemalloc is requested, but tcmalloc is not
      found. Fixes bug 32124; bugfix on
    - When pkg-config is not installed, or a library that depends on
      pkg-config is not found, tell the user what to do to fix the
      problem. Fixes bug 31922; bugfix on
    - Do not include the deprecated <sys/sysctl.h> on Linux or Windows
      systems. Fixes bug 31673; bugfix on

  o Minor bugfixes (chutney, makefiles, documentation):
    - "make test-network-all" now shows the warnings from each test-
      network.sh run on the console, so developers see new warnings
      early. We've also improved the documentation for this feature, and
      renamed a Makefile variable so the code is self-documenting. Fixes
      bug 30455; bugfix on

  o Minor bugfixes (client, onion service v3):
    - Fix a BUG() assertion that occurs within a very small race window
      between when a client intro circuit opens and when its descriptor
      gets cleaned up from the cache. The circuit is now closed early,
      which will trigger a re-fetch of the descriptor and continue the
      connection. Fixes bug 28970; bugfix on

  o Minor bugfixes (code quality):
    - Fix "make check-includes" so it runs correctly on out-of-tree
      builds. Fixes bug 31335; bugfix on

  o Minor bugfixes (compilation):
    - Add more stub functions to fix compilation on Android with link-
      time optimization when --disable-module-dirauth is used.
      Previously, these compilation settings would make the compiler
      look for functions that didn't exist. Fixes bug 31552; bugfix
    - Suppress spurious float-conversion warnings from GCC when calling
      floating-point classifier functions on FreeBSD. Fixes part of bug
      31687; bugfix on

  o Minor bugfixes (configuration):
    - Invalid floating-point values in the configuration file are now
      treated as errors in the configuration. Previously, they were
      ignored and treated as zero. Fixes bug 31475; bugfix on 0.0.1.

  o Minor bugfixes (connections):
    - Avoid trying to read data from closed connections, which can cause
      needless loops in Libevent and infinite loops in Shadow. Fixes bug
      30344; bugfix on

  o Minor bugfixes (controller protocol):
    - Fix the MAPADDRESS controller command to accept one or more
      arguments. Previously, it required two or more arguments, and
      ignored the first. Fixes bug 31772; bugfix on

  o Minor bugfixes (coverity):
    - Add an assertion when parsing a BEGIN cell so that coverity can be
      sure that we are not about to dereference a NULL address. Fixes
      bug 31026; bugfix on This is CID 1447296.
    - In our siphash implementation, when building for coverity, use
      memcpy in place of a switch statement, so that coverity can tell
      we are not accessing out-of-bounds memory. Fixes bug 31025; bugfix
      on This is tracked as CID 1447293 and 1447295.
    - Fix several coverity warnings from our unit tests. Fixes bug
      31030; bugfix on,, and

  o Minor bugfixes (crash):
    - When running Tor with an option like --verify-config or
      --dump-config that does not start the event loop, avoid crashing
      if we try to exit early because of an error. Fixes bug 32407;
      bugfix on

  o Minor bugfixes (developer tooling):
    - Only log git script changes in the post-merge script when the
      merge was to the master branch. Fixes bug 31040; bugfix

  o Minor bugfixes (directory authorities):
    - Return a distinct status when formatting annotations fails. Fixes
      bug 30780; bugfix on

  o Minor bugfixes (error handling):
    - Always lock the backtrace buffer before it is used. Fixes bug
      31734; bugfix on
    - On abort, try harder to flush the output buffers of log messages.
      On some platforms (macOS), log messages could be discarded when
      the process terminates. Fixes bug 31571; bugfix on
    - Report the tor version whenever an assertion fails. Previously, we
      only reported the Tor version on some crashes, and some non-fatal
      assertions. Fixes bug 31571; bugfix on
    - When tor aborts due to an error, close log file descriptors before
      aborting. Closing the logs makes some OSes flush log file buffers,
      rather than deleting buffered log lines. Fixes bug 31594; bugfix

  o Minor bugfixes (FreeBSD, PF-based proxy, IPv6):
    - When extracting an IPv6 address from a PF-based proxy, verify that
      we are actually configured to receive an IPv6 address, and log an
      internal error if not. Fixes part of bug 31687; bugfix

  o Minor bugfixes (git hooks):
    - Remove a duplicate call to practracker from the pre-push hook. The
      pre-push hook already calls the pre-commit hook, which calls
      practracker. Fixes bug 31462; bugfix on

  o Minor bugfixes (git scripts):
    - Stop hard-coding the bash path in the git scripts. Some OSes don't
      have bash in /usr/bin, others have an ancient bash at this path.
      Fixes bug 30840; bugfix on
    - Stop hard-coding the tor master branch name and worktree path in
      the git scripts. Fixes bug 30841; bugfix on
    - Allow git-push-all.sh to be run from any directory. Previously,
      the script only worked if run from an upstream worktree directory.
      Closes ticket 31678.

  o Minor bugfixes (guards):
    - When tor is missing descriptors for some primary entry guards,
      make the log message less alarming. It's normal for descriptors to
      expire, as long as tor fetches new ones soon after. Fixes bug
      31657; bugfix on

  o Minor bugfixes (ipv6):
    - Check for private IPv6 addresses alongside their IPv4 equivalents
      when authorities check descriptors. Previously, we only checked
      for private IPv4 addresses. Fixes bug 31088; bugfix on Patch by Neel Chauhan.
    - When parsing microdescriptors, we should check the IPv6 exit
      policy alongside IPv4. Previously, we checked both exit policies
      for only router info structures, while microdescriptors were
      IPv4-only. Fixes bug 27284; bugfix on Patch by
      Neel Chauhan.

  o Minor bugfixes (logging):
    - Add a missing check for HAVE_PTHREAD_H, because the backtrace code
      uses mutexes. Fixes bug 31614; bugfix on
    - Disable backtrace signal handlers when shutting down tor. Fixes
      bug 31614; bugfix on
    - Rate-limit our the logging message about the obsolete .exit
      notation. Previously, there was no limit on this warning, which
      could potentially be triggered many times by a hostile website.
      Fixes bug 31466; bugfix on
    - When initialising log domain masks, only set known log domains.
      Fixes bug 31854; bugfix on
    - Change log level of message "Hash of session info was not as
      expected" to LOG_PROTOCOL_WARN. Fixes bug 12399; bugfix
    - Fix a code issue that would have broken our parsing of log domains
      as soon as we had 33 of them. Fortunately, we still only have 29.
      Fixes bug 31451; bugfix on

  o Minor bugfixes (logging, protocol violations):
    - Do not log a nonfatal assertion failure when receiving a VERSIONS
      cell on a connection using the obsolete v1 link protocol. Log a
      protocol_warn instead. Fixes bug 31107; bugfix on

  o Minor bugfixes (mainloop, periodic events, in-process API):
    - Reset the periodic events' "enabled" flag when Tor is shut down
      cleanly. Previously, this flag was left on, which caused periodic
      events not to be re-enabled when Tor was relaunched in-process
      with tor_api.h after a shutdown. Fixes bug 32058; bugfix

  o Minor bugfixes (memory management):
    - Stop leaking a small amount of memory in nt_service_install(), in
      unreachable code. Fixes bug 30799; bugfix on Patch
      by Xiaoyin Liu.

  o Minor bugfixes (modules):
    - Explain what the optional Directory Authority module is, and what
      happens when it is disabled. Fixes bug 31825; bugfix

  o Minor bugfixes (multithreading):
    - Avoid some undefined behaviour when freeing mutexes. Fixes bug
      31736; bugfix on 0.0.7.

  o Minor bugfixes (networking, IP addresses):
    - When parsing addresses via Tor's internal DNS lookup API, reject
      IPv4 addresses in square brackets, and accept IPv6 addresses in
      square brackets. This change completes the work started in 23082,
      making address parsing consistent between tor's internal DNS
      lookup and address parsing APIs. Fixes bug 30721; bugfix
    - When parsing addresses via Tor's internal address:port parsing and
      DNS lookup APIs, require IPv6 addresses with ports to have square
      brackets. But allow IPv6 addresses without ports, whether or not
      they have square brackets. Fixes bug 30721; bugfix

  o Minor bugfixes (onion service v3):
    - When purging the client descriptor cache, close any introduction
      point circuits associated with purged cache entries. This avoids
      picking those circuits later when connecting to the same
      introduction points. Fixes bug 30921; bugfix on

  o Minor bugfixes (onion services):
    - In the hs_ident_circuit_t data structure, remove the unused field
      circuit_type and the respective argument in hs_ident_circuit_new().
      This field was set by clients (for introduction) and services (for
      introduction and rendezvous) but was never used afterwards. Fixes
      bug 31490; bugfix on Patch by Neel Chauhan.

  o Minor bugfixes (operator tools):
    - Make tor-print-ed-signing-cert(1) print certificate expiration
      date in RFC 1123 and UNIX timestamp formats, to make output
      machine readable. Fixes bug 31012; bugfix on

  o Minor bugfixes (process management):
    - Remove overly strict assertions that triggered when a pluggable
      transport failed to launch. Fixes bug 31091; bugfix
    - Remove an assertion in the Unix process backend. This assertion
      would trigger when we failed to find the executable for a child
      process. Fixes bug 31810; bugfix on

  o Minor bugfixes (relay):
    - Avoid crashing when starting with a corrupt keys directory where
      the old ntor key and the new ntor key are identical. Fixes bug
      30916; bugfix on

  o Minor bugfixes (rust):
    - Correctly exclude a redundant rust build job in Travis. Fixes bug
      31463; bugfix on
    - Raise the minimum rustc version to 1.31.0, as checked by configure
      and CI. Fixes bug 31442; bugfix on

  o Minor bugfixes (sendme, code structure):
    - Rename the trunnel SENDME file definition from sendme.trunnel to
      sendme_cell.trunnel to avoid having twice sendme.{c|h} in the
      repository. Fixes bug 30769; bugfix on

  o Minor bugfixes (statistics):
    - Stop removing the ed25519 signature if the extra info file is too
      big. If the signature data was removed, but the keyword was kept,
      this could result in an unparseable extra info file. Fixes bug
      30958; bugfix on

  o Minor bugfixes (subsystems):
    - Make the subsystem init order match the subsystem module
      dependencies. Call windows process security APIs as early as
      possible. Initialize logging before network and time, so that
      network and time can use logging. Fixes bug 31615; bugfix

  o Minor bugfixes (testing):
    - Avoid intermittent test failures due to a test that had relied on
      inconsistent timing sources. Fixes bug 31995; bugfix
    - When testing port rebinding, don't busy-wait for tor to log.
      Instead, actually sleep for a short time before polling again.
      Also improve the formatting of control commands and log messages.
      Fixes bug 31837; bugfix on
    - Teach the util/socketpair_ersatz test to work correctly when we
      have no network stack configured. Fixes bug 30804; bugfix

  o Minor bugfixes (tests, SunOS):
    - Avoid a map_anon_nofork test failure due to a signed/unsigned
      integer comparison. Fixes bug 31897; bugfix on

  o Minor bugfixes (tls, logging):
    - Log bugs about the TLS read buffer's length only once, rather than
      filling the logs with similar warnings. Fixes bug 31939; bugfix

  o Minor bugfixes (v2 single onion services):
    - Always retry v2 single onion service intro and rend circuits with
      a 3-hop path. Previously, v2 single onion services used a 3-hop
      path when rendezvous circuits were retried after a remote or
      delayed failure, but a 1-hop path for immediate retries. Fixes bug
      23818; bugfix on

  o Minor bugfixes (v3 onion services):
    - When cleaning up intro circuits for a v3 onion service, don't
      remove circuits that have an established or pending circuit, even
      if they ran out of retries. This way, we don't remove a circuit on
      its last retry. Fixes bug 31652; bugfix on

  o Minor bugfixes (v3 single onion services):
    - Always retry v3 single onion service intro and rend circuits with
      a 3-hop path. Previously, v3 single onion services used a 3-hop
      path when rend circuits were retried after a remote or delayed
      failure, but a 1-hop path for immediate retries. Fixes bug 23818;
      bugfix on
    - Make v3 single onion services fall back to a 3-hop intro, when all
      intro points are unreachable via a 1-hop path. Previously, v3
      single onion services failed when all intro nodes were unreachable
      via a 1-hop path. Fixes bug 23507; bugfix on

  o Code simplification and refactoring:
    - Refactor connection_control_process_inbuf() to reduce the size of
      a practracker exception. Closes ticket 31840.
    - Refactor the microdescs_parse_from_string() function into smaller
      pieces, for better comprehensibility. Closes ticket 31675.
    - Use SEVERITY_MASK_IDX() to find the LOG_* mask indexes in the unit
      tests and fuzzers, rather than using hard-coded values. Closes
      ticket 31334.
    - Interface for function `decrypt_desc_layer` cleaned up. Closes
      ticket 31589.

  o Documentation:
    - Correct the description of "GuardLifetime". Fixes bug 31189;
      bugfix on
    - Make clear in the man page, in both the bandwidth section and the
      AccountingMax section, that Tor counts in powers of two, not
      powers of ten: 1 GByte is 1024*1024*1024 bytes, not one billion
      bytes. Resolves ticket 32106.
    - Document the signal-safe logging behaviour in the tor man page.
      Also add some comments to the relevant functions. Closes
      ticket 31839.
    - Explain why we can't destroy the backtrace buffer mutex. Explain
      why we don't need to destroy the log mutex. Closes ticket 31736.
    - The Tor source code repository now includes a (somewhat dated)
      description of Tor's modular architecture, in doc/HACKING/design.
      This is based on the old "tor-guts.git" repository, which we are
      adopting and superseding. Closes ticket 31849.
    - Improve documentation in circuit padding subsystem. Patch by
      Tobias Pulls. Closes ticket 31113.
    - Include an example usage for IPv6 ORPort in our sample torrc.
      Closes ticket 31320; patch from Ali Raheem.
    - Use RFC 2397 data URL scheme to embed an image into tor-exit-
      notice.html so that operators no longer have to host it
      themselves. Closes ticket 31089.

  o Removed features:
    - No longer include recommended package digests in votes as detailed
      in proposal 301. The RecommendedPackages torrc option is
      deprecated and will no longer have any effect. "package" lines
      will still be considered when computing consensuses for consensus
      methods that include them. (This change has no effect on the list
      of recommended Tor versions, which is still in use.) Closes
      ticket 29738.
    - Remove torctl.in from contrib/dist directory. Resolves
      ticket 30550.

  o Testing:
    - Require C99 standards-conforming code in Travis CI, but allow GNU
      gcc extensions. Also activates clang's -Wtypedef-redefinition
      warnings. Build some jobs with -std=gnu99, and some jobs without.
      Closes ticket 32500.
    - Run shellcheck for all non-third-party shell scripts that are
      shipped with Tor. Closes ticket 29533.
    - When checking shell scripts, ignore any user-created directories.
      Closes ticket 30967.

  o Code simplification and refactoring (config handling):
    - Extract our variable manipulation code from confparse.c to a new
      lower-level typedvar.h module. Closes ticket 30864.
    - Lower another layer of object management from confparse.c to a
      more general tool. Now typed structure members are accessible via
      an abstract type. Implements ticket 30914.
    - Move our backend logic for working with configuration and state
      files into a lower-level library, since it no longer depends on
      any tor-specific functionality. Closes ticket 31626.
    - Numerous simplifications in configuration-handling logic: remove
      duplicated macro definitions, replace magical names with flags,
      and refactor "TestingTorNetwork" to use the same default-option
      logic as the rest of Tor. Closes ticket 30935.
    - Replace our ad-hoc set of flags for configuration variables and
      configuration variable types with fine-grained orthogonal flags
      corresponding to the actual behavior we want. Closes ticket 31625.

  o Code simplification and refactoring (misc):
    - Eliminate some uses of lower-level control reply abstractions,
      primarily in the onion_helper functions. Closes ticket 30889.
    - Rework bootstrap tracking to use the new publish-subscribe
      subsystem. Closes ticket 29976.
    - Rewrite format_node_description() and router_get_verbose_nickname()
      to use strlcpy() and strlcat(). The previous implementation used
      memcpy() and pointer arithmetic, which was error-prone. Closes
      ticket 31545. This is CID 1452819.
    - Split extrainfo_dump_to_string() into smaller functions. Closes
      ticket 30956.
    - Use the ptrdiff_t type consistently for expressing variable
      offsets and pointer differences. Previously we incorrectly (but
      harmlessly) used int and sometimes off_t for these cases. Closes
      ticket 31532.
    - Use the subsystems mechanism to manage the main event loop code.
      Closes ticket 30806.
    - Various simplifications and minor improvements to the circuit
      padding machines. Patch by Tobias Pulls. Closes tickets 31112
      and 31098.

  o Documentation (hard-coded directories):
    - Improve the documentation for the DirAuthority and FallbackDir
      torrc options. Closes ticket 30955.

  o Documentation (tor.1 man page):
    - Fix typo in tor.1 man page: the option is "--help", not "-help".
      Fixes bug 31008; bugfix on

  o Testing (continuous integration):
    - Use Ubuntu Bionic images for our Travis CI builds, so we can get a
      recent version of coccinelle. But leave chutney on Ubuntu Trusty,
      until we can fix some Bionic permissions issues (see ticket
      32240). Related to ticket 31919.
    - Install the mingw OpenSSL package in Appveyor. This makes sure
      that the OpenSSL headers and libraries match in Tor's Appveyor
      builds. (This bug was triggered by an Appveyor image update.)
      Fixes bug 32449; bugfix on
    - In Travis, use Xcode 11.2 on macOS 10.14. Closes ticket 32241.

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