[tor-announce] Tor is released (new stable series)

Nick Mathewson nickm at torproject.org
Tue Jan 9 14:49:32 UTC 2018

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After months of work, Tor is now available!  This is the first
stable release in the 0.3.2.x series, and we hope you find it useful.

You can download the source code from the usual place on the website.
Packages should be available within the next several weeks, with a new
Tor Browser by the end of the month.


This document summarizes new features and bugfixes in each stable
release of Tor. If you want to see more detailed descriptions of the
changes in each development snapshot, see the ChangeLog file.

Changes in version - 2018-01-09
  Tor is the first stable release in the 0.3.2 series.

  The 0.3.2 series includes our long-anticipated new onion service
  design, with numerous security features. (For more information, see
  our blog post at https://blog.torproject.org/fall-harvest.) We also
  have a new circuit scheduler algorithm for improved performance on
  relays everywhere (see https://blog.torproject.org/kist-and-tell),
  along with many smaller features and bugfixes.

  Per our stable release policy, we plan to support each stable release
  series for at least the next nine months, or for three months after
  the first stable release of the next series: whichever is longer. If
  you need a release with long-term support, we recommend that you stay
  with the 0.2.9 series.

  Below is a list of the changes since For a list of all
  changes since, see the ChangeLog file.

  o Directory authority changes:
    - Add "Bastet" as a ninth directory authority to the default list.
      Closes ticket 23910.
    - The directory authority "Longclaw" has changed its IP address.
      Closes ticket 23592.
    - Remove longclaw's IPv6 address, as it will soon change. Authority
      IPv6 addresses were originally added in This leaves
      3/8 directory authorities with IPv6 addresses, but there are also
      52 fallback directory mirrors with IPv6 addresses. Resolves 19760.
    - Add an IPv6 address for the "bastet" directory authority. Closes
      ticket 24394.

  o Major features (next-generation onion services):
    - Tor now supports the next-generation onion services protocol for
      clients and services! As part of this release, the core of
      proposal 224 has been implemented and is available for
      experimentation and testing by our users. This newer version of
      onion services ("v3") features many improvements over the legacy
      system, including:

      a) Better crypto (replaced SHA1/DH/RSA1024
      with SHA3/ed25519/curve25519)

      b) Improved directory protocol, leaking much less information to
      directory servers.

      c) Improved directory protocol, with smaller surface for
      targeted attacks.

      d) Better onion address security against impersonation.

      e) More extensible introduction/rendezvous protocol.

      f) A cleaner and more modular codebase.

      You can identify a next-generation onion address by its length:
      they are 56 characters long, as in

      In the future, we will release more options and features for v3
      onion services, but we first need a testing period, so that the
      current codebase matures and becomes more robust. Planned features
      include: offline keys, advanced client authorization, improved
      guard algorithms, and statistics. For full details, see
      proposal 224.

      Legacy ("v2") onion services will still work for the foreseeable
      future, and will remain the default until this new codebase gets
      tested and hardened. Service operators who want to experiment with
      the new system can use the 'HiddenServiceVersion 3' torrc
      directive along with the regular onion service configuration
      options. For more information, see our blog post at
      "https://blog.torproject.org/fall-harvest". Enjoy!

  o Major feature (scheduler, channel):
    - Tor now uses new schedulers to decide which circuits should
      deliver cells first, in order to improve congestion at relays. The
      first type is called "KIST" ("Kernel Informed Socket Transport"),
      and is only available on Linux-like systems: it uses feedback from
      the kernel to prevent the kernel's TCP buffers from growing too
      full. The second new scheduler type is called "KISTLite": it
      behaves the same as KIST, but runs on systems without kernel
      support for inspecting TCP implementation details. The old
      scheduler is still available, under the name "Vanilla". To change
      the default scheduler preference order, use the new "Schedulers"
      option. (The default preference order is "KIST,KISTLite,Vanilla".)

      Matt Traudt implemented KIST, based on research by Rob Jansen,
      John Geddes, Christ Wacek, Micah Sherr, and Paul Syverson. For
      more information, see the design paper at
      http://www.robgjansen.com/publications/kist-sec2014.pdf and the
      followup implementation paper at https://arxiv.org/abs/1709.01044.
      Closes ticket 12541. For more information, see our blog post at

  o Major bugfixes (security, general):
    - Fix a denial of service bug where an attacker could use a
      malformed directory object to cause a Tor instance to pause while
      OpenSSL would try to read a passphrase from the terminal. (Tor
      instances run without a terminal, which is the case for most Tor
      packages, are not impacted.) Fixes bug 24246; bugfix on every
      version of Tor. Also tracked as TROVE-2017-011 and CVE-2017-8821.
      Found by OSS-Fuzz as testcase 6360145429790720.

  o Major bugfixes (security, directory authority):
    - Fix a denial of service issue where an attacker could crash a
      directory authority using a malformed router descriptor. Fixes bug
      24245; bugfix on Also tracked as TROVE-2017-010
      and CVE-2017-8820.

  o Major bugfixes (security, onion service v2):
    - Fix a use-after-free error that could crash v2 Tor onion services
      when they failed to open circuits while expiring introduction
      points. Fixes bug 24313; bugfix on This issue is
      also tracked as TROVE-2017-013 and CVE-2017-8823.
    - When checking for replays in the INTRODUCE1 cell data for a
      (legacy) onion service, correctly detect replays in the RSA-
      encrypted part of the cell. We were previously checking for
      replays on the entire cell, but those can be circumvented due to
      the malleability of Tor's legacy hybrid encryption. This fix helps
      prevent a traffic confirmation attack. Fixes bug 24244; bugfix on This issue is also tracked as TROVE-2017-009
      and CVE-2017-8819.

  o Major bugfixes (security, relay):
    - When running as a relay, make sure that we never build a path
      through ourselves, even in the case where we have somehow lost the
      version of our descriptor appearing in the consensus. Fixes part
      of bug 21534; bugfix on This issue is also tracked
      as TROVE-2017-012 and CVE-2017-8822.
    - When running as a relay, make sure that we never choose ourselves
      as a guard. Fixes part of bug 21534; bugfix on This
      issue is also tracked as TROVE-2017-012 and CVE-2017-8822.

  o Major bugfixes (bootstrapping):
    - Fetch descriptors aggressively whenever we lack enough to build
      circuits, regardless of how many descriptors we are missing.
      Previously, we would delay launching the fetch when we had fewer
      than 15 missing descriptors, even if some of those descriptors
      were blocking circuits from building. Fixes bug 23985; bugfix on The effects of this bug became worse in, when we began treating missing descriptors from our
      primary guards as a reason to delay circuits.
    - Don't try fetching microdescriptors from relays that have failed
      to deliver them in the past. Fixes bug 23817; bugfix

  o Major bugfixes (circuit prediction):
    - Fix circuit prediction logic so that a client doesn't treat a port
      as being "handled" by a circuit if that circuit already has
      isolation settings on it. This change should make Tor clients more
      responsive by improving their chances of having a pre-created
      circuit ready for use when a request arrives. Fixes bug 18859;
      bugfix on

  o Major bugfixes (exit relays, DNS):
    - Fix an issue causing DNS to fail on high-bandwidth exit nodes,
      making them nearly unusable. Fixes bugs 21394 and 18580; bugfix on, which introduced eventdns. Thanks to Dhalgren for
      identifying and finding a workaround to this bug and to Moritz,
      Arthur Edelstein, and Roger for helping to track it down and
      analyze it.

  o Major bugfixes (relay, crash, assertion failure):
    - Fix a timing-based assertion failure that could occur when the
      circuit out-of-memory handler freed a connection's output buffer.
      Fixes bug 23690; bugfix on

  o Major bugfixes (usability, control port):
    - Report trusted clock skew indications as bootstrap errors, so
      controllers can more easily alert users when their clocks are
      wrong. Fixes bug 23506; bugfix on

  o Minor features (bridge):
    - Bridge relays can now set the BridgeDistribution config option to
      add a "bridge-distribution-request" line to their bridge
      descriptor, which tells BridgeDB how they'd like their bridge
      address to be given out. (Note that as of Oct 2017, BridgeDB does
      not yet implement this feature.) As a side benefit, this feature
      provides a way to distinguish bridge descriptors from non-bridge
      descriptors. Implements tickets 18329.
    - When handling the USERADDR command on an ExtOrPort, warn when the
      transports provides a USERADDR with no port. In a future version,
      USERADDR commands of this format may be rejected. Detects problems
      related to ticket 23080.

  o Minor features (bug detection):
    - Log a warning message with a stack trace for any attempt to call
      get_options() during option validation. This pattern has caused
      subtle bugs in the past. Closes ticket 22281.

  o Minor features (build, compilation):
    - The "check-changes" feature is now part of the "make check" tests;
      we'll use it to try to prevent misformed changes files from
      accumulating. Closes ticket 23564.
    - Tor builds should now fail if there are any mismatches between the
      C type representing a configuration variable and the C type the
      data-driven parser uses to store a value there. Previously, we
      needed to check these by hand, which sometimes led to mistakes.
      Closes ticket 23643.

  o Minor features (client):
    - You can now use Tor as a tunneled HTTP proxy: use the new
      HTTPTunnelPort option to open a port that accepts HTTP CONNECT
      requests. Closes ticket 22407.
    - Add an extra check to make sure that we always use the newer guard
      selection code for picking our guards. Closes ticket 22779.
    - When downloading (micro)descriptors, don't split the list into
      multiple requests unless we want at least 32 descriptors.
      Previously, we split at 4, not 32, which led to significant
      overhead in HTTP request size and degradation in compression
      performance. Closes ticket 23220.
    - Improve log messages when missing descriptors for primary guards.
      Resolves ticket 23670.

  o Minor features (command line):
    - Add a new commandline option, --key-expiration, which prints when
      the current signing key is going to expire. Implements ticket
      17639; patch by Isis Lovecruft.

  o Minor features (control port):
    - If an application tries to use the control port as an HTTP proxy,
      respond with a meaningful "This is the Tor control port" message,
      and log the event. Closes ticket 1667. Patch from Ravi
      Chandra Padmala.
    - Provide better error message for GETINFO desc/(id|name) when not
      fetching router descriptors. Closes ticket 5847. Patch by
      Kevin Butler.
    - Add GETINFO "{desc,md}/download-enabled", to inform the controller
      whether Tor will try to download router descriptors and
      microdescriptors respectively. Closes ticket 22684.
    - Added new GETINFO targets "ip-to-country/{ipv4,ipv6}-available",
      so controllers can tell whether the geoip databases are loaded.
      Closes ticket 23237.
    - Adds a timestamp field to the CIRC_BW and STREAM_BW bandwidth
      events. Closes ticket 19254. Patch by "DonnchaC".

  o Minor features (development support):
    - Developers can now generate a call-graph for Tor using the
      "calltool" python program, which post-processes object dumps. It
      should work okay on many Linux and OSX platforms, and might work
      elsewhere too. To run it, install calltool from
      https://gitweb.torproject.org/user/nickm/calltool.git and run
      "make callgraph". Closes ticket 19307.

  o Minor features (directory authority):
    - Make the "Exit" flag assignment only depend on whether the exit
      policy allows connections to ports 80 and 443. Previously relays
      would get the Exit flag if they allowed connections to one of
      these ports and also port 6667. Resolves ticket 23637.

  o Minor features (ed25519):
    - Add validation function to checks for torsion components in
      ed25519 public keys, used by prop224 client-side code. Closes
      ticket 22006. Math help by Ian Goldberg.

  o Minor features (exit relay, DNS):
    - Improve the clarity and safety of the log message from evdns when
      receiving an apparently spoofed DNS reply. Closes ticket 3056.

  o Minor features (fallback directory mirrors):
    - The fallback directory list has been re-generated based on the
      current status of the network. Tor uses fallback directories to
      bootstrap when it doesn't yet have up-to-date directory
      information. Closes ticket 24801.
    - Make the default DirAuthorityFallbackRate 0.1, so that clients
      prefer to bootstrap from fallback directory mirrors. This is a
      follow-up to 24679, which removed weights from the default
      fallbacks. Implements ticket 24681.

  o Minor features (geoip):
    - Update geoip and geoip6 to the January 5 2018 Maxmind GeoLite2
      Country database.

  o Minor features (integration, hardening):
    - Add a new NoExec option to prevent Tor from running other
      programs. When this option is set to 1, Tor will never try to run
      another program, regardless of the settings of
      PortForwardingHelper, ClientTransportPlugin, or
      ServerTransportPlugin. Once NoExec is set, it cannot be disabled
      without restarting Tor. Closes ticket 22976.

  o Minor features (linux seccomp2 sandbox):
    - Update the sandbox rules so that they should now work correctly
      with Glibc 2.26. Closes ticket 24315.

  o Minor features (logging):
    - Provide better warnings when the getrandom() syscall fails. Closes
      ticket 24500.
    - Downgrade a pair of log messages that could occur when an exit's
      resolver gave us an unusual (but not forbidden) response. Closes
      ticket 24097.
    - Improve the message we log when re-enabling circuit build timeouts
      after having received a consensus. Closes ticket 20963.
    - Log more circuit information whenever we are about to try to
      package a relay cell on a circuit with a nonexistent n_chan.
      Attempt to diagnose ticket 8185.
    - Improve info-level log identification of particular circuits, to
      help with debugging. Closes ticket 23645.
    - Improve the warning message for specifying a relay by nickname.
      The previous message implied that nickname registration was still
      part of the Tor network design, which it isn't. Closes
      ticket 20488.
    - If the sandbox filter fails to load, suggest to the user that
      their kernel might not support seccomp2. Closes ticket 23090.

  o Minor features (onion service, circuit, logging):
    - Improve logging of many callsite in the circuit subsystem to print
      the circuit identifier(s).
    - Log when we cleanup an intro point from a service so we know when
      and for what reason it happened. Closes ticket 23604.

  o Minor features (portability):
    - Tor now compiles correctly on arm64 with libseccomp-dev installed.
      (It doesn't yet work with the sandbox enabled.) Closes
      ticket 24424.
    - Check at configure time whether uint8_t is the same type as
      unsigned char. Lots of existing code already makes this
      assumption, and there could be strict aliasing issues if the
      assumption is violated. Closes ticket 22410.

  o Minor features (relay):
    - When choosing which circuits can be expired as unused, consider
      circuits from clients even if those clients used regular CREATE
      cells to make them; and do not consider circuits from relays even
      if they were made with CREATE_FAST. Part of ticket 22805.
    - Reject attempts to use relative file paths when RunAsDaemon is
      set. Previously, Tor would accept these, but the directory-
      changing step of RunAsDaemon would give strange and/or confusing
      results. Closes ticket 22731.

  o Minor features (relay statistics):
    - Change relay bandwidth reporting stats interval from 4 hours to 24
      hours in order to reduce the efficiency of guard discovery
      attacks. Fixes ticket 23856.

  o Minor features (reverted deprecations):
    - The ClientDNSRejectInternalAddresses flag can once again be set in
      non-testing Tor networks, so long as they do not use the default
      directory authorities. This change also removes the deprecation of
      this flag from Closes ticket 21031.

  o Minor features (robustness):
    - Change several fatal assertions when flushing buffers into non-
      fatal assertions, to prevent any recurrence of 23690.

  o Minor features (startup, safety):
    - When configured to write a PID file, Tor now exits if it is unable
      to do so. Previously, it would warn and continue. Closes
      ticket 20119.

  o Minor features (static analysis):
    - The BUG() macro has been changed slightly so that Coverity no
      longer complains about dead code if the bug is impossible. Closes
      ticket 23054.

  o Minor features (testing):
    - Our fuzzing tests now test the encrypted portions of v3 onion
      service descriptors. Implements more of 21509.
    - Add a unit test to make sure that our own generated platform
      string will be accepted by directory authorities. Closes
      ticket 22109.
    - The default chutney network tests now include tests for the v3
      onion service design. Make sure you have the latest version of
      chutney if you want to run these. Closes ticket 22437.
    - Add a unit test to verify that we can parse a hardcoded v2 onion
      service descriptor. Closes ticket 15554.

  o Minor bugfixes (address selection):
    - When the fascist_firewall_choose_address_ functions don't find a
      reachable address, set the returned address to the null address
      and port. This is a precautionary measure, because some callers do
      not check the return value. Fixes bug 24736; bugfix

  o Minor bugfixes (bootstrapping):
    - When warning about state file clock skew, report the correct
      direction for the detected skew. Fixes bug 23606; bugfix

  o Minor bugfixes (bridge clients, bootstrap):
    - Retry directory downloads when we get our first bridge descriptor
      during bootstrap or while reconnecting to the network. Keep
      retrying every time we get a bridge descriptor, until we have a
      reachable bridge. Fixes part of bug 24367; bugfix on
    - Stop delaying bridge descriptor fetches when we have cached bridge
      descriptors. Instead, only delay bridge descriptor fetches when we
      have at least one reachable bridge. Fixes part of bug 24367;
      bugfix on
    - Stop delaying directory fetches when we have cached bridge
      descriptors. Instead, only delay bridge descriptor fetches when
      all our bridges are definitely unreachable. Fixes part of bug
      24367; bugfix on

  o Minor bugfixes (bridge):
    - Overwrite the bridge address earlier in the process of retrieving
      its descriptor, to make sure we reach it on the configured
      address. Fixes bug 20532; bugfix on

  o Minor bugfixes (build, compilation):
    - Fix a compilation warning when building with zstd support on
      32-bit platforms. Fixes bug 23568; bugfix on Found
      and fixed by Andreas Stieger.
    - When searching for OpenSSL, don't accept any OpenSSL library that
      lacks TLSv1_1_method(): Tor doesn't build with those versions.
      Additionally, look in /usr/local/opt/openssl, if it's present.
      These changes together repair the default build on OSX systems
      with Homebrew installed. Fixes bug 23602; bugfix on
    - Fix a signed/unsigned comparison warning introduced by our fix to
      TROVE-2017-009. Fixes bug 24480; bugfix on
    - Fix a memory leak warning in one of the libevent-related
      configuration tests that could occur when manually specifying
      -fsanitize=address. Fixes bug 24279; bugfix on
      Found and patched by Alex Xu.
    - Fix unused-variable warnings in donna's Curve25519 SSE2 code.
      Fixes bug 22895; bugfix on

  o Minor bugfixes (certificate handling):
    - Fix a time handling bug in Tor certificates set to expire after
      the year 2106. Fixes bug 23055; bugfix on Found by
      Coverity as CID 1415728.

  o Minor bugfixes (client):
    - By default, do not enable storage of client-side DNS values. These
      values were unused by default previously, but they should not have
      been cached at all. Fixes bug 24050; bugfix on

  o Minor bugfixes (client, usability):
    - Refrain from needlessly rejecting SOCKS5-with-hostnames and
      SOCKS4a requests that contain IP address strings, even when
      SafeSocks in enabled, as this prevents user from connecting to
      known IP addresses without relying on DNS for resolving. SafeSocks
      still rejects SOCKS connections that connect to IP addresses when
      those addresses are _not_ encoded as hostnames. Fixes bug 22461;
      bugfix on Tor

  o Minor bugfixes (code correctness):
    - Call htons() in extend_cell_format() for encoding a 16-bit value.
      Previously we used ntohs(), which happens to behave the same on
      all the platforms we support, but which isn't really correct.
      Fixes bug 23106; bugfix on
    - For defense-in-depth, make the controller's write_escaped_data()
      function robust to extremely long inputs. Fixes bug 19281; bugfix
      on Reported by Guido Vranken.
    - Fix several places in our codebase where a C compiler would be
      likely to eliminate a check, based on assuming that undefined
      behavior had not happened elsewhere in the code. These cases are
      usually a sign of redundant checking or dubious arithmetic. Found
      by Georg Koppen using the "STACK" tool from Wang, Zeldovich,
      Kaashoek, and Solar-Lezama. Fixes bug 24423; bugfix on various
      Tor versions.

  o Minor bugfixes (compression):
    - Handle a pathological case when decompressing Zstandard data when
      the output buffer size is zero. Fixes bug 23551; bugfix

  o Minor bugfixes (consensus expiry):
    - Check for adequate directory information correctly. Previously, Tor
      would reconsider whether it had sufficient directory information
      every 2 minutes. Fixes bug 23091; bugfix on

  o Minor bugfixes (control port, linux seccomp2 sandbox):
    - Avoid a crash when attempting to use the seccomp2 sandbox together
      with the OwningControllerProcess feature. Fixes bug 24198; bugfix

  o Minor bugfixes (control port, onion services):
    - Report "FAILED" instead of "UPLOAD_FAILED" "FAILED" for the
      HS_DESC event when a service is not able to upload a descriptor.
      Fixes bug 24230; bugfix on

  o Minor bugfixes (directory cache):
    - Recover better from empty or corrupt files in the consensus cache
      directory. Fixes bug 24099; bugfix on
    - When a consensus diff calculation is only partially successful,
      only record the successful parts as having succeeded. Partial
      success can happen if (for example) one compression method fails
      but the others succeed. Previously we misrecorded all the
      calculations as having succeeded, which would later cause a
      nonfatal assertion failure. Fixes bug 24086; bugfix

  o Minor bugfixes (directory client):
    - On failure to download directory information, delay retry attempts
      by a random amount based on the "decorrelated jitter" algorithm.
      Our previous delay algorithm tended to produce extra-long delays
      too easily. Fixes bug 23816; bugfix on

  o Minor bugfixes (directory protocol):
    - Directory servers now include a "Date:" http header for response
      codes other than 200. Clients starting with a skewed clock and a
      recent consensus were getting "304 Not modified" responses from
      directory authorities, so without the Date header, the client
      would never hear about a wrong clock. Fixes bug 23499; bugfix
      on 0.0.8rc1.
    - Make clients wait for 6 seconds before trying to download a
      consensus from an authority. Fixes bug 17750; bugfix

  o Minor bugfixes (documentation):
    - Document better how to read gcov, and what our gcov postprocessing
      scripts do. Fixes bug 23739; bugfix on
    - Fix manpage to not refer to the obsolete (and misspelled)
      UseEntryGuardsAsDirectoryGuards parameter in the description of
      NumDirectoryGuards. Fixes bug 23611; bugfix on

  o Minor bugfixes (DoS-resistance):
    - If future code asks if there are any running bridges, without
      checking if bridges are enabled, log a BUG warning rather than
      crashing. Fixes bug 23524; bugfix on

  o Minor bugfixes (entry guards):
    - Tor now updates its guard state when it reads a consensus
      regardless of whether it's missing descriptors. That makes tor use
      its primary guards to fetch descriptors in some edge cases where
      it would previously have used fallback directories. Fixes bug
      23862; bugfix on

  o Minor bugfixes (format strictness):
    - Restrict several data formats to decimal. Previously, the
      BuildTimeHistogram entries in the state file, the "bw=" entries in
      the bandwidth authority file, and the process IDs passed to the
      __OwningControllerProcess option could all be specified in hex or
      octal as well as in decimal. This was not an intentional feature.
      Fixes bug 22802; bugfixes on,,

  o Minor bugfixes (heartbeat):
    - If we fail to write a heartbeat message, schedule a retry for the
      minimum heartbeat interval number of seconds in the future. Fixes
      bug 19476; bugfix on

  o Minor bugfixes (logging):
    - Suppress a log notice when relay descriptors arrive. We already
      have a bootstrap progress for this so no need to log notice
      everytime tor receives relay descriptors. Microdescriptors behave
      the same. Fixes bug 23861; bugfix on
    - Remove duplicate log messages regarding opening non-local
      SocksPorts upon parsing config and opening listeners at startup.
      Fixes bug 4019; bugfix on
    - Use a more comprehensible log message when telling the user
      they've excluded every running exit node. Fixes bug 7890; bugfix
    - When logging the number of descriptors we intend to download per
      directory request, do not log a number higher than then the number
      of descriptors we're fetching in total. Fixes bug 19648; bugfix
    - When warning about a directory owned by the wrong user, log the
      actual name of the user owning the directory. Previously, we'd log
      the name of the process owner twice. Fixes bug 23487; bugfix
    - Fix some messages on unexpected errors from the seccomp2 library.
      Fixes bug 22750; bugfix on Patch from "cypherpunks".
    - The tor specification says hop counts are 1-based, so fix two log
      messages that mistakenly logged 0-based hop counts. Fixes bug
      18982; bugfix on and Patch by teor.
      Credit to Xiaofan Li for reporting this issue.

  o Minor bugfixes (logging, relay shutdown, annoyance):
    - When a circuit is marked for close, do not attempt to package any
      cells for channels on that circuit. Previously, we would detect
      this condition lower in the call stack, when we noticed that the
      circuit had no attached channel, and log an annoying message.
      Fixes bug 8185; bugfix on

  o Minor bugfixes (memory safety, defensive programming):
    - Clear the target address when node_get_prim_orport() returns
      early. Fixes bug 23874; bugfix on

  o Minor bugfixes (memory usage):
    - When queuing DESTROY cells on a channel, only queue the circuit-id
      and reason fields: not the entire 514-byte cell. This fix should
      help mitigate any bugs or attacks that fill up these queues, and
      free more RAM for other uses. Fixes bug 24666; bugfix

  o Minor bugfixes (network layer):
    - When closing a connection via close_connection_immediately(), we
      mark it as "not blocked on bandwidth", to prevent later calls from
      trying to unblock it, and give it permission to read. This fixes a
      backtrace warning that can happen on relays under various
      circumstances. Fixes bug 24167; bugfix on

  o Minor bugfixes (onion services):
    - The introduction circuit was being timed out too quickly while
      waiting for the rendezvous circuit to complete. Keep the intro
      circuit around longer instead of timing out and reopening new ones
      constantly. Fixes bug 23681; bugfix on
    - Rename the consensus parameter "hsdir-interval" to "hsdir_interval"
      so it matches dir-spec.txt. Fixes bug 24262; bugfix
    - When handling multiple SOCKS request for the same .onion address,
      only fetch the service descriptor once.
    - Avoid a possible double close of a circuit by the intro point on
      error of sending the INTRO_ESTABLISHED cell. Fixes bug 23610;
      bugfix on
    - When reloading configured onion services, copy all information
      from the old service object. Previously, some data was omitted,
      causing delays in descriptor upload, and other bugs. Fixes bug
      23790; bugfix on

  o Minor bugfixes (path selection):
    - When selecting relays by bandwidth, avoid a rounding error that
      could sometimes cause load to be imbalanced incorrectly.
      Previously, we would always round upwards; now, we round towards
      the nearest integer. This had the biggest effect when a relay's
      weight adjustments should have given it weight 0, but it got
      weight 1 instead. Fixes bug 23318; bugfix on
    - When calculating the fraction of nodes that have descriptors, and
      all nodes in the network have zero bandwidths, count the number of
      nodes instead. Fixes bug 23318; bugfix on
    - Actually log the total bandwidth in compute_weighted_bandwidths().
      Fixes bug 24170; bugfix on

  o Minor bugfixes (portability):
    - Stop using the PATH_MAX variable, which is not defined on GNU
      Hurd. Fixes bug 23098; bugfix on
    - Fix a bug in the bit-counting parts of our timing-wheel code on
      MSVC. (Note that MSVC is still not a supported build platform, due
      to cyptographic timing channel risks.) Fixes bug 24633; bugfix

  o Minor bugfixes (relay):
    - When uploading our descriptor for the first time after startup,
      report the reason for uploading as "Tor just started" rather than
      leaving it blank. Fixes bug 22885; bugfix on
    - Avoid unnecessary calls to directory_fetches_from_authorities() on
      relays, to prevent spurious address resolutions and descriptor
      rebuilds. This is a mitigation for bug 21789. Fixes bug 23470;
      bugfix on in
    - Avoid a crash when transitioning from client mode to bridge mode.
      Previously, we would launch the worker threads whenever our
      "public server" mode changed, but not when our "server" mode
      changed. Fixes bug 23693; bugfix on

  o Minor bugfixes (testing):
    - Fix a spurious fuzzing-only use of an uninitialized value. Found
      by Brian Carpenter. Fixes bug 24082; bugfix on
    - Test that IPv6-only clients can use microdescriptors when running
      "make test-network-all". Requires chutney master 61c28b9 or later.
      Closes ticket 24109.
    - Prevent scripts/test/coverage from attempting to move gcov output
      to the root directory. Fixes bug 23741; bugfix on
    - Capture and detect several "Result does not fit" warnings in unit
      tests on platforms with 32-bit time_t. Fixes bug 21800; bugfix
    - Fix additional channelpadding unit test failures by using mocked
      time instead of actual time for all tests. Fixes bug 23608; bugfix
    - Fix a bug in our fuzzing mock replacement for crypto_pk_checksig(),
      to correctly handle cases where a caller gives it an RSA key of
      under 160 bits. (This is not actually a bug in Tor itself, but
      rather in our fuzzing code.) Fixes bug 24247; bugfix on Found by OSS-Fuzz as issue 4177.
    - Fix a broken unit test for the OutboundAddress option: the parsing
      function was never returning an error on failure. Fixes bug 23366;
      bugfix on
    - Fix a signed-integer overflow in the unit tests for
      dir/download_status_random_backoff, which was untriggered until we
      fixed bug 17750. Fixes bug 22924; bugfix on

  o Minor bugfixes (usability, control port):
    - Stop making an unnecessary routerlist check in NETINFO clock skew
      detection; this was preventing clients from reporting NETINFO clock
      skew to controllers. Fixes bug 23532; bugfix on

  o Code simplification and refactoring:
    - Remove various ways of testing circuits and connections for
      "clientness"; instead, favor channel_is_client(). Part of
      ticket 22805.
    - Extract the code for handling newly-open channels into a separate
      function from the general code to handle channel state
      transitions. This change simplifies our callgraph, reducing the
      size of the largest strongly connected component by roughly a
      factor of two. Closes ticket 22608.
    - Remove dead code for largely unused statistics on the number of
      times we've attempted various public key operations. Fixes bug
      19871; bugfix on Fix by Isis Lovecruft.
    - Remove several now-obsolete functions for asking about old
      variants directory authority status. Closes ticket 22311; patch
      from "huyvq".
    - Remove some of the code that once supported "Named" and "Unnamed"
      routers. Authorities no longer vote for these flags. Closes
      ticket 22215.
    - Rename the obsolete malleable hybrid_encrypt functions used in TAP
      and old hidden services, to indicate that they aren't suitable for
      new protocols or formats. Closes ticket 23026.
    - Replace our STRUCT_OFFSET() macro with offsetof(). Closes ticket
      22521. Patch from Neel Chauhan.
    - Split the enormous circuit_send_next_onion_skin() function into
      multiple subfunctions. Closes ticket 22804.
    - Split the portions of the buffer.c module that handle particular
      protocols into separate modules. Part of ticket 23149.
    - Use our test macros more consistently, to produce more useful
      error messages when our unit tests fail. Add coccinelle patches to
      allow us to re-check for test macro uses. Closes ticket 22497.

  o Deprecated features:
    - The ReachableDirAddresses and ClientPreferIPv6DirPort options are
      now deprecated; they do not apply to relays, and they have had no
      effect on clients since 0.2.8.x. Closes ticket 19704.
    - Deprecate HTTPProxy/HTTPProxyAuthenticator config options. They
      only applies to direct unencrypted HTTP connections to your
      directory server, which your Tor probably isn't using. Closes
      ticket 20575.

  o Documentation:
    - Add notes in man page regarding OS support for the various
      scheduler types. Attempt to use less jargon in the scheduler
      section. Closes ticket 24254.
    - Clarify that the Address option is entirely about setting an
      advertised IPv4 address. Closes ticket 18891.
    - Clarify the manpage's use of the term "address" to clarify what
      kind of address is intended. Closes ticket 21405.
    - Document that onion service subdomains are allowed, and ignored.
      Closes ticket 18736.
    - Clarify in the manual that "Sandbox 1" is only supported on Linux
      kernels. Closes ticket 22677.
    - Document all values of PublishServerDescriptor in the manpage.
      Closes ticket 15645.
    - Improve the documentation for the directory port part of the
      DirAuthority line. Closes ticket 20152.
    - Restore documentation for the authorities' "approved-routers"
      file. Closes ticket 21148.

  o Removed features:
    - The AllowDotExit option has been removed as unsafe. It has been
      deprecated since Closes ticket 23426.
    - The ClientDNSRejectInternalAddresses flag can no longer be set on
      non-testing networks. It has been deprecated since
      Closes ticket 21031.
    - The controller API no longer includes an AUTHDIR_NEWDESCS event:
      nobody was using it any longer. Closes ticket 22377.

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