[tor-announce] Tor is released

Nick Mathewson nickm at torproject.org
Mon Nov 23 01:50:01 UTC 2015

Hi, all!

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Tor is the first stable release in the Tor 0.2.7 series. It
makes no changes beyond those in; the summary below lists
all changes in the 0.2.7 series.

You can download the source from the usual place on the website.
Packages should be up in a few days.

Changes in version - 2015-11-20
  The Tor 0.2.7 release series is dedicated to the memory of Tor user
  and privacy advocate Caspar Bowden (1961-2015). Caspar worked
  tirelessly to advocate human rights regardless of national borders,
  and oppose the encroachments of mass surveillance. He opposed national
  exceptionalism, he brought clarity to legal and policy debates, he
  understood and predicted the impact of mass surveillance on the world,
  and he laid the groundwork for resisting it. While serving on the Tor
  Project's board of directors, he brought us his uncompromising focus
  on technical excellence in the service of humankind. Caspar was an
  inimitable force for good and a wonderful friend. He was kind,
  humorous, generous, gallant, and believed we should protect one
  another without exception. We honor him here for his ideals, his
  efforts, and his accomplishments. Please honor his memory with works
  that would make him proud.

  The 0.2.7 series adds a more secure identity key type for relays,
  improves cryptography performance, resolves several longstanding
  hidden-service performance issues, improves controller support for
  hidden services, and includes small bugfixes and performance
  improvements throughout the program. This release series also includes
  more tests than before, and significant simplifications to which parts
  of Tor invoke which others. For a full list of changes, see below.

  o New system requirements:
    - Tor no longer includes workarounds to support Libevent versions
      before 1.3e. Libevent 2.0 or later is recommended. Closes
      ticket 15248.
    - Tor no longer supports copies of OpenSSL that are missing support
      for Elliptic Curve Cryptography. (We began using ECC when
      available in, for more safe and efficient key
      negotiation.) In particular, support for at least one of P256 or
      P224 is now required, with manual configuration needed if only
      P224 is available. Resolves ticket 16140.
    - Tor no longer supports versions of OpenSSL before 1.0. (If you are
      on an operating system that has not upgraded to OpenSSL 1.0 or
      later, and you compile Tor from source, you will need to install a
      more recent OpenSSL to link Tor against.) These versions of
      OpenSSL are still supported by the OpenSSL, but the numerous
      cryptographic improvements in later OpenSSL releases makes them a
      clear choice. Resolves ticket 16034.

  o Major features (controller):
    - Add the ADD_ONION and DEL_ONION commands that allow the creation
      and management of hidden services via the controller. Closes
      ticket 6411.
    - New "GETINFO onions/current" and "GETINFO onions/detached"
      commands to get information about hidden services created via the
      controller. Part of ticket 6411.
    - New HSFETCH command to launch a request for a hidden service
      descriptor. Closes ticket 14847.
    - New HSPOST command to upload a hidden service descriptor. Closes
      ticket 3523. Patch by "DonnchaC".

  o Major features (Ed25519 identity keys, Proposal 220):
    - Add support for offline encrypted Ed25519 master keys. To use this
      feature on your tor relay, run "tor --keygen" to make a new master
      key (or to make a new signing key if you already have a master
      key). Closes ticket 13642.
    - All relays now maintain a stronger identity key, using the Ed25519
      elliptic curve signature format. This master key is designed so
      that it can be kept offline. Relays also generate an online
      signing key, and a set of other Ed25519 keys and certificates.
      These are all automatically regenerated and rotated as needed.
      Implements part of ticket 12498.
    - Directory authorities now vote on Ed25519 identity keys along with
      RSA1024 keys. Implements part of ticket 12498.
    - Directory authorities track which Ed25519 identity keys have been
      used with which RSA1024 identity keys, and do not allow them to
      vary freely. Implements part of ticket 12498.
    - Microdescriptors now include Ed25519 identity keys. Implements
      part of ticket 12498.
    - Add a --newpass option to allow changing or removing the
      passphrase of an encrypted key with tor --keygen. Implements part
      of ticket 16769.
    - Add a new OfflineMasterKey option to tell Tor never to try loading
      or generating a secret Ed25519 identity key. You can use this in
      combination with tor --keygen to manage offline and/or encrypted
      Ed25519 keys. Implements ticket 16944.
    - On receiving a HUP signal, check to see whether the Ed25519
      signing key has changed, and reload it if so. Closes ticket 16790.
    - Significant usability improvements for Ed25519 key management. Log
      messages are better, and the code can recover from far more
      failure conditions. Thanks to "s7r" for reporting and diagnosing
      so many of these!

  o Major features (ECC performance):
    - Improve the runtime speed of Ed25519 signature verification by
      using Ed25519-donna's batch verification support. Implements
      ticket 16533.
    - Improve the speed of Ed25519 operations and Curve25519 keypair
      generation when built targeting 32 bit x86 platforms with SSE2
      available. Implements ticket 16535.
    - Improve the runtime speed of Ed25519 operations by using the
      public-domain Ed25519-donna by Andrew M. ("floodyberry").
      Implements ticket 16467.
    - Improve the runtime speed of the ntor handshake by using an
      optimized curve25519 basepoint scalarmult implementation from the
      public-domain Ed25519-donna by Andrew M. ("floodyberry"), based on
      ideas by Adam Langley. Implements ticket 9663.

  o Major features (Hidden services):
    - Hidden services, if using the EntryNodes option, are required to
      use more than one EntryNode, in order to avoid a guard discovery
      attack. (This would only affect people who had configured hidden
      services and manually specified the EntryNodes option with a
      single entry-node. The impact was that it would be easy to
      remotely identify the guard node used by such a hidden service.
      See ticket for more information.) Fixes ticket 14917.
    - Add the torrc option HiddenServiceNumIntroductionPoints, to
      specify a fixed number of introduction points. Its maximum value
      is 10 and default is 3. Using this option can increase a hidden
      service's reliability under load, at the cost of making it more
      visible that the hidden service is facing extra load. Closes
      ticket 4862.
    - Remove the adaptive algorithm for choosing the number of
      introduction points, which used to change the number of
      introduction points (poorly) depending on the number of
      connections the HS sees. Closes ticket 4862.

  o Major features (onion key cross-certification):
    - Relay descriptors now include signatures of their own identity
      keys, made using the TAP and ntor onion keys. These signatures
      allow relays to prove ownership of their own onion keys. Because
      of this change, microdescriptors will no longer need to include
      RSA identity keys. Implements proposal 228; closes ticket 12499.

  o Major bugfixes (client-side privacy, also in
    - Properly separate out each SOCKSPort when applying stream
      isolation. The error occurred because each port's session group
      was being overwritten by a default value when the listener
      connection was initialized. Fixes bug 16247; bugfix on Patch by "jojelino".

  o Major bugfixes (hidden service clients, stability, also in
    - Stop refusing to store updated hidden service descriptors on a
      client. This reverts commit 9407040c59218 (which indeed fixed bug
      14219, but introduced a major hidden service reachability
      regression detailed in bug 16381). This is a temporary fix since
      we can live with the minor issue in bug 14219 (it just results in
      some load on the network) but the regression of 16381 is too much
      of a setback. First-round fix for bug 16381; bugfix

  o Major bugfixes (hidden services):
    - Revert commit that made directory authorities assign the HSDir
      flag to relay without a DirPort; this was bad because such relays
      can't handle BEGIN_DIR cells. Fixes bug 15850; bugfix
      on tor-
    - When cannibalizing a circuit for an introduction point, always
      extend to the chosen exit node (creating a 4 hop circuit).
      Previously Tor would use the current circuit exit node, which
      changed the original choice of introduction point, and could cause
      the hidden service to skip excluded introduction points or
      reconnect to a skipped introduction point. Fixes bug 16260; bugfix

  o Major bugfixes (memory leaks):
    - Fix a memory leak in ed25519 batch signature checking. Fixes bug
      17398; bugfix on

  o Major bugfixes (open file limit):
    - The open file limit wasn't checked before calling
      tor_accept_socket_nonblocking(), which would make Tor exceed the
      limit. Now, before opening a new socket, Tor validates the open
      file limit just before, and if the max has been reached, return an
      error. Fixes bug 16288; bugfix on

  o Major bugfixes (security, correctness):
    - Fix an error that could cause us to read 4 bytes before the
      beginning of an openssl string. This bug could be used to cause
      Tor to crash on systems with unusual malloc implementations, or
      systems with unusual hardening installed. Fixes bug 17404; bugfix

  o Major bugfixes (stability, also in
    - Stop crashing with an assertion failure when parsing certain kinds
      of malformed or truncated microdescriptors. Fixes bug 16400;
      bugfix on Found by "torkeln"; fix based on a patch
      by "cypherpunks_backup".
    - Stop random client-side assertion failures that could occur when
      connecting to a busy hidden service, or connecting to a hidden
      service while a NEWNYM is in progress. Fixes bug 16013; bugfix

  o Minor features (client, SOCKS):
    - Add GroupWritable and WorldWritable options to unix-socket based
      SocksPort and ControlPort options. These options apply to a single
      socket, and override {Control,Socks}SocketsGroupWritable. Closes
      ticket 15220.
    - Relax the validation done to hostnames in SOCKS5 requests, and
      allow a single trailing '.' to cope with clients that pass FQDNs
      using that syntax to explicitly indicate that the domain name is
      fully-qualified. Fixes bug 16674; bugfix on
    - Relax the validation of hostnames in SOCKS5 requests, allowing the
      character '_' to appear, in order to cope with domains observed in
      the wild that are serving non-RFC compliant records. Resolves
      ticket 16430.

  o Minor features (client-side privacy):
    - New KeepAliveIsolateSOCKSAuth option to indefinitely extend circuit
      lifespan when IsolateSOCKSAuth and streams with SOCKS
      authentication are attached to the circuit. This allows
      applications like TorBrowser to manage circuit lifetime on their
      own. Implements feature 15482.
    - When logging malformed hostnames from SOCKS5 requests, respect
      SafeLogging configuration. Fixes bug 16891; bugfix on

  o Minor features (clock-jump tolerance):
    - Recover better when our clock jumps back many hours, like might
      happen for Tails or Whonix users who start with a very wrong
      hardware clock, use Tor to discover a more accurate time, and then
      fix their clock. Resolves part of ticket 8766.

  o Minor features (command-line interface):
    - Make --hash-password imply --hush to prevent unnecessary noise.
      Closes ticket 15542. Patch from "cypherpunks".
    - Print a warning whenever we find a relative file path being used
      as torrc option. Resolves issue 14018.

  o Minor features (compilation):
    - Give a warning as early as possible when trying to build with an
      unsupported OpenSSL version. Closes ticket 16901.
    - Use C99 variadic macros when the compiler is not GCC. This avoids
      failing compilations on MSVC, and fixes a log-file-based race
      condition in our old workarounds. Original patch from Gisle Vanem.

  o Minor features (control protocol):
    - Support network-liveness GETINFO key and NETWORK_LIVENESS event in
      the control protocol. Resolves ticket 15358.

  o Minor features (controller):
    - Add DirAuthority lines for default directory authorities to the
      output of the "GETINFO config/defaults" command if not already
      present. Implements ticket 14840.
    - Controllers can now use "GETINFO hs/client/desc/id/..." to
      retrieve items from the client's hidden service descriptor cache.
      Closes ticket 14845.
    - Implement a new controller command "GETINFO status/fresh-relay-
      descs" to fetch a descriptor/extrainfo pair that was generated on
      demand just for the controller's use. Implements ticket 14784.

  o Minor features (directory authorities):
    - Directory authorities no longer vote against the "Fast", "Stable",
      and "HSDir" flags just because they were going to vote against
      "Running": if the consensus turns out to be that the router was
      running, then the authority's vote should count. Patch from Peter
      Retzlaff; closes issue 8712.

  o Minor features (directory authorities, security, also in
    - The HSDir flag given by authorities now requires the Stable flag.
      For the current network, this results in going from 2887 to 2806
      HSDirs. Also, it makes it harder for an attacker to launch a sybil
      attack by raising the effort for a relay to become Stable to
      require at the very least 7 days, while maintaining the 96 hours
      uptime requirement for HSDir. Implements ticket 8243.

  o Minor features (DoS-resistance):
    - Make it harder for attackers to overload hidden services with
      introductions, by blocking multiple introduction requests on the
      same circuit. Resolves ticket 15515.

  o Minor features (geoip):
    - Update geoip and geoip6 to the October 9 2015 Maxmind GeoLite2
      Country database.

  o Minor features (hidden services):
    - Add the new options "HiddenServiceMaxStreams" and
      "HiddenServiceMaxStreamsCloseCircuit" to allow hidden services to
      limit the maximum number of simultaneous streams per circuit, and
      optionally tear down the circuit when the limit is exceeded. Part
      of ticket 16052.
    - Client now uses an introduction point failure cache to know when
      to fetch or keep a descriptor in their cache. Previously, failures
      were recorded implicitly, but not explicitly remembered. Closes
      ticket 16389.
    - Relays need to have the Fast flag to get the HSDir flag. As this
      is being written, we'll go from 2745 HSDirs down to 2342, a ~14%
      drop. This change should make some attacks against the hidden
      service directory system harder. Fixes ticket 15963.
    - Turn on hidden service statistics collection by setting the torrc
      option HiddenServiceStatistics to "1" by default. (This keeps
      track only of the fraction of traffic used by hidden services, and
      the total number of hidden services in existence.) Closes
      ticket 15254.
    - To avoid leaking HS popularity, don't cycle the introduction point
      when we've handled a fixed number of INTRODUCE2 cells but instead
      cycle it when a random number of introductions is reached, thus
      making it more difficult for an attacker to find out the amount of
      clients that have used the introduction point for a specific HS.
      Closes ticket 15745.

  o Minor features (logging):
    - Include the Tor version in all LD_BUG log messages, since people
      tend to cut and paste those into the bugtracker. Implements
      ticket 15026.

  o Minor features (pluggable transports):
    - When launching managed pluggable transports on Linux systems,
      attempt to have the kernel deliver a SIGTERM on tor exit if the
      pluggable transport process is still running. Resolves
      ticket 15471.
    - When launching managed pluggable transports, setup a valid open
      stdin in the child process that can be used to detect if tor has
      terminated. The "TOR_PT_EXIT_ON_STDIN_CLOSE" environment variable
      can be used by implementations to detect this new behavior.
      Resolves ticket 15435.

  o Minor bugfixes (torrc exit policies):
    - In each instance above, usage advice is provided to avoid the
      message. Resolves ticket 16069. Patch by "teor". Fixes part of bug
      16069; bugfix on
    - In torrc, "accept6 *" and "reject6 *" ExitPolicy lines now only
      produce IPv6 wildcard addresses. Previously they would produce
      both IPv4 and IPv6 wildcard addresses. Patch by "teor". Fixes part
      of bug 16069; bugfix on
    - When parsing torrc ExitPolicies, we now issue an info-level
      message when expanding an "accept/reject *" line to include both
      IPv4 and IPv6 wildcard addresses. Related to ticket 16069.
    - When parsing torrc ExitPolicies, we now warn for a number of cases
      where the user's intent is likely to differ from Tor's actual
      behavior. These include: using an IPv4 address with an accept6 or
      reject6 line; using "private" on an accept6 or reject6 line; and
      including any ExitPolicy lines after accept *:* or reject *:*.
      Related to ticket 16069.

  o Minor bugfixes (command-line interface):
    - When "--quiet" is provided along with "--validate-config", do not
      write anything to stdout on success. Fixes bug 14994; bugfix
    - When complaining about bad arguments to "--dump-config", use
      stderr, not stdout.
    - Print usage information for --dump-config when it is used without
      an argument. Also, fix the error message to use different wording
      and add newline at the end. Fixes bug 15541; bugfix

  o Minor bugfixes (compilation):
    - Fix compilation of sandbox.c with musl-libc. Fixes bug 17347;
      bugfix on Patch from 'jamestk'.
    - Repair compilation with the most recent (unreleased, alpha)
      vesions of OpenSSL 1.1. Fixes part of ticket 17237.

  o Minor bugfixes (compilation, also in
    - Build with --enable-systemd correctly when libsystemd is
      installed, but systemd is not. Fixes bug 16164; bugfix on Patch from Peter Palfrader.

  o Minor bugfixes (configuration, unit tests):
    - Only add the default fallback directories when the DirAuthorities,
      AlternateDirAuthority, and FallbackDir directory config options
      are set to their defaults. The default fallback directory list is
      currently empty, this fix will only change tor's behavior when it
      has default fallback directories. Includes unit tests for
      consider_adding_dir_servers(). Fixes bug 15642; bugfix on
      90f6071d8dc0 in Patch by "teor".

  o Minor bugfixes (controller):
    - Add the descriptor ID in each HS_DESC control event. It was
      missing, but specified in control-spec.txt. Fixes bug 15881;
      bugfix on

  o Minor bugfixes (correctness):
    - For correctness, avoid modifying a constant string in
      handle_control_postdescriptor. Fixes bug 15546; bugfix
    - Remove side-effects from tor_assert() calls. This was harmless,
      because we never disable assertions, but it is bad style and
      unnecessary. Fixes bug 15211; bugfix on,,
    - When calling channel_free_list(), avoid calling smartlist_remove()
      while inside a FOREACH loop. This partially reverts commit
      17356fe7fd96af where the correct SMARTLIST_DEL_CURRENT was
      incorrectly removed. Fixes bug 16924; bugfix on

  o Minor bugfixes (crypto error-handling, also in
    - Check for failures from crypto_early_init, and refuse to continue.
      A previous typo meant that we could keep going with an
      uninitialized crypto library, and would have OpenSSL initialize
      its own PRNG. Fixes bug 16360; bugfix on, introduced
      when implementing ticket 4900. Patch by "teor".

  o Minor bugfixes (hidden service):
    - Fix an out-of-bounds read when parsing invalid INTRODUCE2 cells on
      a client authorized hidden service. Fixes bug 15823; bugfix
    - Remove an extraneous newline character from the end of hidden
      service descriptors. Fixes bug 15296; bugfix on

  o Minor bugfixes (Linux seccomp2 sandbox):
    - Use the sandbox in tor_open_cloexec whether or not O_CLOEXEC is
      defined. Patch by "teor". Fixes bug 16515; bugfix on
    - Allow bridge authorities to run correctly under the seccomp2
      sandbox. Fixes bug 16964; bugfix on
    - Add the "hidserv-stats" filename to our sandbox filter for the
      HiddenServiceStatistics option to work properly. Fixes bug 17354;
      bugfix on tor- Patch from David Goulet.

  o Minor bugfixes (Linux seccomp2 sandbox, also in
    - Allow pipe() and pipe2() syscalls in the seccomp2 sandbox: we need
      these when eventfd2() support is missing. Fixes bug 16363; bugfix
      on Patch from "teor".

  o Minor bugfixes (Linux seccomp2 sandbox, also in
    - Allow systemd connections to work with the Linux seccomp2 sandbox
      code. Fixes bug 16212; bugfix on Patch by
      Peter Palfrader.
    - Fix sandboxing to work when running as a relay, by allowing the
      renaming of secret_id_key, and allowing the eventfd2 and futex
      syscalls. Fixes bug 16244; bugfix on Patch by
      Peter Palfrader.

  o Minor bugfixes (logging):
    - When building Tor under Clang, do not include an extra set of
      parentheses in log messages that include function names. Fixes bug
      15269; bugfix on every released version of Tor when compiled with
      recent enough Clang.

  o Minor bugfixes (network):
    - When attempting to use fallback technique for network interface
      lookup, disregard loopback and multicast addresses since they are
      unsuitable for public communications.

  o Minor bugfixes (open file limit):
    - Fix set_max_file_descriptors() to set by default the max open file
      limit to the current limit when setrlimit() fails. Fixes bug
      16274; bugfix on tor- Patch by dgoulet.

  o Minor bugfixes (portability):
    - Check correctly for Windows socket errors in the workqueue
      backend. Fixes bug 16741; bugfix on
    - Try harder to normalize the exit status of the Tor process to the
      standard-provided range. Fixes bug 16975; bugfix on every version
      of Tor ever.
    - Use libexecinfo on FreeBSD to enable backtrace support. Fixes part
      of bug 17151; bugfix on Patch from Marcin Cieślak.

  o Minor bugfixes (relay):
    - Ensure that worker threads actually exit when a fatal error or
      shutdown is indicated. This fix doesn't currently affect the
      behavior of Tor, because Tor workers never indicates fatal error
      or shutdown except in the unit tests. Fixes bug 16868; bugfix
    - Fix a rarely-encountered memory leak when failing to initialize
      the thread pool. Fixes bug 16631; bugfix on Patch
      from "cypherpunks".
    - Unblock threads before releasing the work queue mutex to ensure
      predictable scheduling behavior. Fixes bug 16644; bugfix

  o Minor bugfixes (security, exit policies):
    - ExitPolicyRejectPrivate now also rejects the relay's published
      IPv6 address (if any), and any publicly routable IPv4 or IPv6
      addresses on any local interfaces. ticket 17027. Patch by "teor".
      Fixes bug 17027; bugfix on

  o Minor bugfixes (statistics):
    - Disregard the ConnDirectionStatistics torrc options when Tor is
      not a relay since in that mode of operation no sensible data is
      being collected and because Tor might run into measurement hiccups
      when running as a client for some time, then becoming a relay.
      Fixes bug 15604; bugfix on

  o Minor bugfixes (systemd):
    - Tor's systemd unit file no longer contains extraneous spaces.
      These spaces would sometimes confuse tools like deb-systemd-
      helper. Fixes bug 16162; bugfix on

  o Minor bugfixes (test networks):
    - When self-testing reachability, use ExtendAllowPrivateAddresses to
      determine if local/private addresses imply reachability. The
      previous fix used TestingTorNetwork, which implies
      ExtendAllowPrivateAddresses, but this excluded rare configurations
      where ExtendAllowPrivateAddresses is set but TestingTorNetwork is
      not. Fixes bug 15771; bugfix on Patch by "teor",
      issue discovered by CJ Ess.

  o Minor bugfixes (tests, also in
    - Fix a crash in the unit tests when built with MSVC2013. Fixes bug
      16030; bugfix on Patch from "NewEraCracker".

  o Code simplification and refactoring:
    - Change the function that's called when we need to retry all
      downloads so that it only reschedules the downloads to happen
      immediately, rather than launching them all at once itself. This
      further simplifies Tor's callgraph.
    - Define WINVER and _WIN32_WINNT centrally, in orconfig.h, in order
      to ensure they remain consistent and visible everywhere.
    - Move some format-parsing functions out of crypto.c and
      crypto_curve25519.c into crypto_format.c and/or util_format.c.
    - Move the client-only parts of init_keys() into a separate
      function. Closes ticket 16763.
    - Move the hacky fallback code out of get_interface_address6() into
      separate function and get it covered with unit-tests. Resolves
      ticket 14710.
    - Refactor hidden service client-side cache lookup to intelligently
      report its various failure cases, and disentangle failure cases
      involving a lack of introduction points. Closes ticket 14391.
    - Remove some vestigial workarounds for the MSVC6 compiler. We
      haven't supported that in ages.
    - Remove the unused "nulterminate" argument from buf_pullup().
    - Simplify the microdesc_free() implementation so that it no longer
      appears (to code analysis tools) to potentially invoke a huge
      suite of other microdesc functions.
    - Simply the control graph further by deferring the inner body of
      directory_all_unreachable() into a callback. Closes ticket 16762.
    - The link authentication code has been refactored for better
      testability and reliability. It now uses code generated with the
      "trunnel" binary encoding generator, to reduce the risk of bugs
      due to programmer error. Done as part of ticket 12498.
    - Treat the loss of an owning controller as equivalent to a SIGTERM
      signal. This removes a tiny amount of duplicated code, and
      simplifies our callgraph. Closes ticket 16788.
    - Use our own Base64 encoder instead of OpenSSL's, to allow more
      control over the output. Part of ticket 15652.
    - When generating an event to send to the controller, we no longer
      put the event over the network immediately. Instead, we queue
      these events, and use a Libevent callback to deliver them. This
      change simplifies Tor's callgraph by reducing the number of
      functions from which all other Tor functions are reachable. Closes
      ticket 16695.
    - Wrap Windows-only C files inside '#ifdef _WIN32' so that tools
      that try to scan or compile every file on Unix won't decide that
      they are broken.

  o Documentation:
    - Fix capitalization of SOCKS in sample torrc. Closes ticket 15609.
    - Improve the descriptions of statistics-related torrc options in
      the manpage to describe rationale and possible uses cases. Fixes
      issue 15550.
    - Improve the layout and formatting of ./configure --help messages.
      Closes ticket 15024. Patch from "cypherpunks".
    - Include a specific and (hopefully) accurate documentation of the
      torrc file's meta-format in doc/torrc_format.txt. This is mainly
      of interest to people writing programs to parse or generate torrc
      files. This document is not a commitment to long-term
      compatibility; some aspects of the current format are a bit
      ridiculous. Closes ticket 2325.
    - Include the TUNING document in our source tarball. It is referred
      to in the ChangeLog and an error message. Fixes bug 16929; bugfix
    - Note that HiddenServicePorts can take a unix domain socket. Closes
      ticket 17364.
    - Recommend a 40 GB example AccountingMax in torrc.sample rather
      than a 4 GB max. Closes ticket 16742.
    - Standardize on the term "server descriptor" in the manual page.
      Previously, we had used "router descriptor", "server descriptor",
      and "relay descriptor" interchangeably. Part of ticket 14987.
    - Advise users on how to configure separate IPv4 and IPv6 exit
      policies in the manpage and sample torrcs. Related to ticket 16069.
    - Fix an error in the manual page and comments for
      TestingDirAuthVoteHSDir[IsStrict], which suggested that a HSDir
      required "ORPort connectivity". While this is true, it is in no
      way unique to the HSDir flag. Of all the flags, only HSDirs need a
      DirPort configured in order for the authorities to assign that
      particular flag. Patch by "teor". Fixed as part of 14882; bugfix
    - Fix the usage message of tor-resolve(1) so that it no longer lists
      the removed -F option. Fixes bug 16913; bugfix on

  o Removed code:
    - Remove `USE_OPENSSL_BASE64` and the corresponding fallback code
      and always use the internal Base64 decoder. The internal decoder
      has been part of tor since tor-, and no one should
      be using the OpenSSL one. Part of ticket 15652.
    - Remove the 'tor_strclear()' function; use memwipe() instead.
      Closes ticket 14922.
    - Remove the code that would try to aggressively flush controller
      connections while writing to them. This code was introduced in, in order to keep output buffers from exceeding
      their limits. But there is no longer a maximum output buffer size,
      and flushing data in this way caused some undesirable recursions
      in our call graph. Closes ticket 16480.
    - The internal pure-C tor-fw-helper tool is now removed from the Tor
      distribution, in favor of the pure-Go clone available from
      https://gitweb.torproject.org/tor-fw-helper.git/ . The libraries
      used by the C tor-fw-helper are not, in our opinion, very
      confidence- inspiring in their secure-programming techniques.
      Closes ticket 13338.

  o Removed features:
    - Remove the (seldom-used) DynamicDHGroups feature. For anti-
      fingerprinting we now recommend pluggable transports; for forward-
      secrecy in TLS, we now use the P-256 group. Closes ticket 13736.
    - Remove the HidServDirectoryV2 option. Now all relays offer to
      store hidden service descriptors. Related to 16543.
    - Remove the VoteOnHidServDirectoriesV2 option, since all
      authorities have long set it to 1. Closes ticket 16543.
    - Remove the undocumented "--digests" command-line option. It
      complicated our build process, caused subtle build issues on
      multiple platforms, and is now redundant since we started
      including git version identifiers. Closes ticket 14742.
    - Tor no longer contains checks for ancient directory cache versions
      that didn't know about microdescriptors.
    - Tor no longer contains workarounds for stat files generated by
      super-old versions of Tor that didn't choose guards sensibly.

  o Testing:
    - The test-network.sh script now supports performance testing.
      Requires corresponding chutney performance testing changes. Patch
      by "teor". Closes ticket 14175.
    - Add a new set of callgraph analysis scripts that use clang to
      produce a list of which Tor functions are reachable from which
      other Tor functions. We're planning to use these to help simplify
      our code structure by identifying illogical dependencies.
    - Add new 'test-full' and 'test-full-online' targets to run all
      tests, including integration tests with stem and chutney.
    - Autodetect CHUTNEY_PATH if the chutney and Tor sources are side-
      by-side in the same parent directory. Closes ticket 16903. Patch
      by "teor".
    - Document use of coverity, clang static analyzer, and clang dynamic
      undefined behavior and address sanitizers in doc/HACKING. Include
      detailed usage instructions in the blacklist. Patch by "teor".
      Closes ticket 15817.
    - Make "bridges+hs" the default test network. This tests almost all
      tor functionality during make test-network, while allowing tests
      to succeed on non-IPv6 systems. Requires chutney commit 396da92 in
      test-network-bridges-hs. Closes tickets 16945 (tor) and 16946
      (chutney). Patches by "teor".
    - Make the test-workqueue test work on Windows by initializing the
      network before we begin.
    - New make target (make test-network-all) to run multiple applicable
      chutney test cases. Patch from Teor; closes 16953.
    - Now that OpenSSL has its own scrypt implementation, add an unit
      test that checks for interoperability between libscrypt_scrypt()
      and OpenSSL's EVP_PBE_scrypt() so that we could not use libscrypt
      and rely on EVP_PBE_scrypt() whenever possible. Resolves
      ticket 16189.
    - The link authentication protocol code now has extensive tests.
    - The relay descriptor signature testing code now has
      extensive tests.
    - The test_workqueue program now runs faster, and is enabled by
      default as a part of "make check".
    - Unit test dns_resolve(), dns_clip_ttl() and dns_get_expiry_ttl()
      functions in dns.c. Implements a portion of ticket 16831.
    - Use environment variables rather than autoconf substitutions to
      send variables from the build system to the test scripts. This
      change should be easier to maintain, and cause 'make distcheck' to
      work better than before. Fixes bug 17148.
    - When building Tor with testing coverage enabled, run Chutney tests
      (if any) using the 'tor-cov' coverage binary.
    - When running test-network or test-stem, check for the absence of
      stem/chutney before doing any build operations.
    - Add a test to verify that the compiler does not eliminate our
      memwipe() implementation. Closes ticket 15377.
    - Add make rule `check-changes` to verify the format of changes
      files. Closes ticket 15180.
    - Add unit tests for control_event_is_interesting(). Add a compile-
      time check that the number of events doesn't exceed the capacity
      of control_event_t.event_mask. Closes ticket 15431, checks for
      bugs similar to 13085. Patch by "teor".
    - Command-line argument tests moved to Stem. Resolves ticket 14806.
    - Integrate the ntor, backtrace, and zero-length keys tests into the
      automake test suite. Closes ticket 15344.
    - Remove assertions during builds to determine Tor's test coverage.
      We don't want to trigger these even in assertions, so including
      them artificially makes our branch coverage look worse than it is.
      This patch provides the new test-stem-full and coverage-html-full
      configure options. Implements ticket 15400.
    - New TestingDirAuthVote{Exit,Guard,HSDir}IsStrict flags to
      explicitly manage consensus flags in testing networks. Patch by
      "robgjansen", modified by "teor". Implements part of ticket 14882.
    - Check for matching value in server response in ntor_ref.py. Fixes
      bug 15591; bugfix on Reported and fixed
      by "joelanders".
    - Set the severity correctly when testing
      get_interface_addresses_ifaddrs() and
      get_interface_addresses_win32(), so that the tests fail gracefully
      instead of triggering an assertion. Fixes bug 15759; bugfix on Reported by Nicolas Derive.

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